A B C D E F
G H I J K L M 

Total read books on site:
more than 10 000

You can read its for free!


Text on one page: Few Medium Many
Produced by Steven Giacomelli, Jason Isbell, Anne Storer
and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at
(This file was produced from images
generously made available by Case Western Reserve University
Preservation Department Digital Library)





Transcriber's Note:
1) Spelling of Sneferu / Snefru left as in the original.
2) [.a] = dot above a


* * * * *




EGYPTIAN RESEARCH ACCOUNT,
1897.


EL KAB.

BY
J. E. QUIBELL.


IN ASSOCIATION WITH THE WORK OF
SOMERS CLARKE AND J. J. TYLOR.


LONDON:
BERNARD QUARITCH, 15, PICCADILLY, W.
1898.




LONDON:
PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED,
STAMFORD STREET AND CHARING CROSS.




CONTENTS.


INTRODUCTION.

SECT. PAGE
1. Course of work 1
2. Chance of inscribed tombs 2
3. Description of site 2


CHAPTER I.
THE EARLIEST TOMBS.

4. Mastabas and stairway tombs 3
5. Ka-mena mastaba 3
6. A mastaba 4
7. Compound mastaba 4
8. Nefer-shem-em 5
9. Early black cylinder 5
10. Smaller mastabas 5
11. Stairway tomb with inscribed cylinder 7
12. Open graves 8
13. _Majūr_ and cist burials 9


CHAPTER II.
DATE OF THE "NEW RACE" REMAINS.

14. Variety of names 11
15. First dating erroneous 11
16. Evidence from El Kab 12
17. From other sites 12
18. Doubtful points 13


CHAPTER III.
MIDDLE KINGDOM CEMETERY.

19. Early XIIth dynasty tombs and the wall 13
20. Tombs in detail 14
21. Later XIIth dynasty tombs 14
22. Beads 15


CHAPTER IV.
NEW EMPIRE MONUMENTS.

23. Few XVIIIth dynasty remains 15
24. Temple of Amenhotep III. 16
25. Foundation deposits 16
26. Temple near the east gate 17
27. The date of the wall 17
28. Bronzes 17
29. Pigeon-house 17


CHAPTER V.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES.

30. Plate I. 17
31. Plates II-VI. Photographs 17
32. " VII-IX. Mastabas and tombs 19
33. Plate X. Alabaster vessels 19
34. Plates XI-XII. Libyan and early pottery 19
35. " XIII-XVII. XIIth dynasty pottery 19
36. " XVIII-XIX. Marks on pottery 20
37. Plate XX. Pottery, scarabs, and cylinders 20
38. " XXI. Foundation deposits 20
39. Plates XXII-XXVI. Plans 21
40. Plate XXVII. Contents of tombs 21




LIST OF PLATES.

I. Tomb plans.
II. Old Empire stone vases, etc. (photographs).
III. Sandstone statue of Nefer-shem-em, and group of objects
from the tomb of Ka-mena (photographs).
IV. Sandstone table of offerings and two stelæ (photographs).
V. XIIth dynasty statuette and ushabti, a late bronze, etc.
(photographs).
VI. Diorite, alabaster and pottery vessels of Old Empire
(photographs).
VII. Sketches of mastabas.
VIII. Sketch of a mastaba, and box of ivory and glaze veneer.
IX. Views of a stairway tomb.
X. Alabaster vessels, XIIth and IVth dynasties.
XI. Libyan and Old Kingdom pottery.
XII. Old Kingdom pottery.
XIII. Pottery, early XIIth dynasty.
XIV. XIIth dynasty water-jars.
XV. " " pottery.
XVI. " " "
XVII. " " "
XVIII. Marks on Old Kingdom pottery.
XIX. " Middle Kingdom pots.
XX. Pottery, scarabs and inscribed cylinders.
XXI. Foundation deposits.
XXII. Plan of cemetery E. of town.
XXIII. " mastabas N. of town.
XXIV. " tombs in S.E. angle of the enclosure.
XXV. Plan of gateway in wall.
XXVI. " temple of Thothmes III.
XXVII. Catalogue of small Libyan tombs.




INTRODUCTION.


1. It was on Mr. Somers Clarke's proposition that El Kab was selected
for last winter's work of the Research Account. Mr. Clarke has for
some years been interested in this site, and has published some of
the XVIIIth dynasty tombs there. He wished to see the smaller tombs
excavated, and the great area inside the town examined, so, with his
colleague, Mr. J. J. Tylor, he offered a considerable subscription to
the funds, on condition that El Kab should be the selected site. To
Mr. Jesse Howarth, equally with these gentlemen, we are indebted for
that support without which the excavations could not have been carried
out.

We arrived at El Kab on the 1st of December, and within four days had
cleared out several of the uninscribed tombs in the famous hill, and
had made them into a most comfortable house. Nothing in Egypt makes so
pleasant a dwelling as a rock-tomb. In a house in which window and
door are one, and three sides and the roof are of solid rock, there
can be no draughts, and the range of temperature night and day is very
small. We had a room each, another for a dining-room, and in two more
I packed away my forty workmen. These were nearly all men known in
previous years at Kuft and Naqada, for the natives of El Kab are few
in number and of inferior physical strength, so that their labour at
two piastres a day was dearer than that of the picked Kuftis at four.
All the conditions of work were very pleasant, much better than I
have known in Egypt before. No crowd of loiterers and dealers' spies
haunted the work as at Kuft, no robbery by workmen threatened us as
at Thebes. Surveying poles were left out for weeks together; at most
villages they would have been stolen the first night for firewood.

There was some delay in getting the necessary permission for digging;
after a fortnight's waiting we received it, and began to work upon
the XIIth dynasty cemetery. Halfway through March the digging was
gradually brought to an end, and map-making and packing occupied the
time till we left in the beginning of April. Fifty-four boxes of
pottery and other objects were brought to England, were exhibited
during the month of July at University College, and were then
dispersed to various museums, Oxford, Philadelphia, Chicago and
Manchester, receiving the largest shares. I have to acknowledge much
help received both in Egypt and England. To Mr. Clarke, besides the
financial support mentioned already, we owe thanks for help in the
work of excavation, in plan-making, drawing, etc., and for his
untiring hospitality. To Miss A. A. Pirie, who was with us for the
later two-thirds of the season, we are indebted for several coloured
drawings of tombs, etc., now at University College, and to her, as
also to my sister, for constant aid in the varied daily occupations of
the digger, tasks in which their experience makes them most valuable
helpers, and which they cheerfully added to the labours of desert
housekeeping. In England, several friends have helped in the work of
unpacking, exhibiting, drawing plates, etc., notably Miss Griffith,
Miss Murray, Mr. Herbert Thompson and Dr. Walker. Few outside the
little ring of diggers and their friends know how much drudgery in
Egypt and in England is taken off our hands by friendly helpers,
working without a thought of reward.

2. The site of El Kab is a large one. The area inside the town walls
alone would have required to clear it five times the money we had at
our disposal; and besides that, there was the hill of XVIIIth dynasty
tombs, the cemeteries outside the walls, and the temples far up on the
desert. It was necessary to make careful choice of such spots as would
repay the labour expended on them. The most obvious place to search
would be the sandstone hill in which we lived, where the fine
inscribed tombs of Paheri and Aahmes are well known. But is there much
chance of finding inscribed tombs anywhere in Egypt except at Thebes?
We know that the tomb was left open for the visits of relatives, and
open it must always have remained, unless it got drifted up with sand,
or unless the quarrying of another tomb on a higher level sent down a
mass of chips which hid it. At the capital, tombs were often lost for
long periods in this way; in less crowded cemeteries the accident
would seem to be less likely to happen. Many traces in the existing
tombs at El Kab show that earlier tombs were quarried away in order to
make room for them. This would seem to minimise the chances of finding
anything valuable of early date; and if by chance some inscribed tomb
still remains hidden in the talus of chips in the lower part of the
hill, the business of making a thorough search there would be so long
and expensive that it will probably remain undiscovered.

3. The greatest monument at El Kab is the town wall, the huge mass of
which must arrest the attention of every passer-by on the river. It
encloses a great square of about 580 yards in the side; the walls are
40 feet thick, and in most places still reach a height of 20 feet. The
diagonal of the square runs, roughly, N. and S., and the S.W. wall is
parallel to the river. The S.W. corner has disappeared; indeed the
river now runs over the point where it must have stood. There is
evidence that the Nile has moved eastward at this point, but not to
any great extent, within the last 2000 years, for some remains of a
landing-stage, believed to be Roman, can still be seen a little south
of the town. About a quarter of the area inside the walls was cut off
from the rest by a curved double wall, and only inside this smaller
area are there many traces of buildings. Here, in the early part of
the century, was a large mound, but now the sebakhin have carried it
all away, and we look over a most desolate space, at one part red with
the broken pottery of all periods, thrown out from the sebakh-digger's
sieve, at another white with the salt that everywhere permeates the
soil.



Pages: | 1 | | 2 | | 3 | | 4 | | 5 | | 6 | | 7 | | 8 | | 9 | | 10 | | 11 | | 12 | | Next |

N O P Q R S T
U V W X Y Z 

Your last read book:

You dont read books at this site.