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The fish cart (b), and the
iced bear's tail (c), are so closely allied that they probably formed
a unity in the original conception, though they are often found
separately nowadays among the folk. Bear and Fox in partnership (a),
is found elsewhere told of other animals, notably of the firm of Cat
and Mouse in Grimm No. 2. It is difficult to determine at present
whether stories relating to other animals, or even to associations of
men, have been applied by peasant narrators to the general opposition
of the sly _versus_ the strong animal, which they have dramatized in
the beast satire of Reynard and Bruin.

For a discussion of the whole subject, see A. Gerber, _Great Russian
Animal Tales_, Baltimore, 1891, who discusses the incidents included
in the above compilation in his notes on v. (a), i. (b), ii. (c), iii.
(d), iv. (e), iva. (f), ix. (g), x. (h), xi. (k). It will be found
that few of the other incidents contained in Gerber can be traced
throughout Europe except when they are evidently derived from Æsop.


This story has the peculiarity, that it occurs in the Arabian Nights
as well as in so many European folk-tales. Hahn includes it under his
formula No. 4, Genoveva (add Gonz. 5, Dozon 2, Denton 238, Day xix.),
H. Coote, in _Folk-Lore Record_, vol. iii., part 2, in a paper on
"Folk-Lore, the Source of some of M. Galland's Tales," contends that
the "Tale of the Two Sisters who Envied their Cadette," as well as Ali
Baba, Aladdin, and Ahmed and Paribanou, were derived from Arabic
folk-lore rather than from any Arabic manuscript version. We know now
that this is not true of Aladdin; and Zotenberg has traced all these
extra tales of Galland to the oral recitation of his Christian
dragoman Hanna. Coote finds the two envious sisters to be an enormous
favorite in Italy and Sicily, being found in Pitre, Berti, Imbriani,
Nerucci, and Comparetti. The story of the girl is sometimes told
separately as a _fiaba_. Coote remarks that Leon Bruno is Greek (see
Hahn, p. 131 and F. L. R., i., 209), and is derived from the _Arabian
Nights_ in the story of the princess of the islands of Wakwak; it also
occurs in Straparola and Madame D'Aulnoy; Brueyre has something
similar in Brittany, p. 93; Kohler in _Melusine_, pp. 213, 214,
compares the Breton tale, given there, with the _Arabian Nights_.

The boy with the moon or the sun on his forehead is a frequent
character in Indian folk-tales (see Temple, _Wide Awake Stories_). The
possibility of Galland's version having passed into the East from
Europe does not seem to have been considered till I suggested it in my
Introduction to the _Arabian Nights_. There is little doubt that Open
Sesame is European, and similarly this story occurs in Straparola
early enough to prevent any possibility of doubt on the subject. The
sequel of incidents appears to be as follows:

Overheard Boasting--Three Marriages--Substituted Children--Quest
Tasks--Life Token--Speech Taboo--Brother's Failure--Sister's
Success--Guilt Revelation--Punishment of Envious Sisters. Some of
these incidents, like the Life Token, occur in other collocations but
are sufficiently appropriate here; Imbriani has three versions, vi.,
vii., viii., with notes.

I have mostly followed Crane, pp. 17-25 (see also his notes, pp.


_Source._--Sir J. G. Frazer, in _Archæological Review_, i., 81-91,
161-81, who made an attempt, the first of its kind, to restore the
original archetype of the story of "The Boy Who Became Pope," on the
same principle as classical scholars restore readings from families of
MSS. He uses Grimm, xxxiii.; Crane, xliii.; Sebillot, 2d series xxv.;
and Fleury, 123 _seq._ I have, on the whole, followed his
reconstruction, but have introduced, from the version in the "Seven
Wise Masters," the motive for the father's anger when learning that he
would have, some day, to offer his son water to wash in; Sir James, in
a private communication, concurs in the insertion. The folk versions
are, in this instance, peculiarly poor, and I have therefore had
largely to rewrite, preserving, however, the common incidents.

_Formula._--The following formula gives the common elements of the
four parallels used by Sir James Frazer, with my insertion of the bird
prophecy (father-water, mother-towel):

Simple Boy--Sent to School--Learns Language of Dogs, Frogs and
Birds--Bird Prophecy (Father-Water, Mother-Towel)--Hero
Exposed--Intended Murderer Brings Back Deer's Heart--Three adventures
on Road--Dogs Warn Burglary--Frog Restores Host to Sick Girl--Bird
Prophesies Papacy (one of three companions)--Pope Election--Heavenly
Sign (dove and bell)--Bird Prophecy Fulfilled--Father Repentance.

_Parallels._--Besides the four sources used by Sir James Frazer, he
gives two variants of the Breton from _Melusine_, i., cols. 300, 374,
and the "Seven Wise Masters" version, with six variants: Russian,
Masurian, two Basques, and a Turkish one. In the Russian version the
father-water, mother-towel prophecy occurs, which could not have
arisen independently. In the Masurian version the prophecy is more
primitive ("Your mother will wash your feet, and your father will
drink the water"). In the remaining versions the prophecy is more
vague, that the parents shall be the son's servants. In the
_Pentamerone_ there is a story in which a father has five simple sons
whom he sends into the world to learn experience. The younger returns
with a knowledge of the language of birds. But the rest of the story
is not of our type.

_Remarks._--In his second paper (_Arch. Rev._ i., 161 _seq._) Sir
James Frazer has many interesting remarks upon the folk conception of
the means of acquiring a knowledge of the language of animals. This is
generally done by a gift of magic rings, or by eating magic plants
(mainly fern) or eating serpents (generally white). Sir James Frazer
connects the rings with serpents by suggesting that serpents are
supposed to have stones in their head which confer magic powers (_As
You Like It_, iv., 2.) He further connects the notion of eating
serpents with acquiring the language of birds by referring to the
views of Democritus that serpents are generated from the mixed blood
of diverse birds and are therefore in a strict sense blood relations
of them; this idea, he suggests, may have arisen from the fact that
serpents eat birds' eggs. It would be an easy transition in
folk-thought to consider that serpents would understand the language
of the birds they ate and that persons eating serpents would
understand the language of both. So Sigurd understands the language of
birds, after eating the blood of Fafnir the Worm. But all this throws
little light upon the story itself.

Bolte gives, i., 323-4, many folk-tales in which the hero becomes not
a pope but a king and compares the story of Joseph in the Bible as
possibly a source of the Prophetic Dream of the father and mother
waiting upon the son. The transference to the pope may have been
influenced by the tradition given by Vincent of Beauvais (_Spec.
Hist._, xxiv., 98) that Sylvester II. learned at Seville the language
of birds. There was also the tradition that at the election of
Innocent III., 1198, three doves flew about the cathedral, one of
which, a white one, at last settled down upon his shoulder. Raumer,
_Gesch. d. Hohenstaufen_, ii., 595.


This tale is widely spread through Europe, being found from Ireland to
Greece, from Esthonia to Catalonia. It is generally told of three
soldiers, or often brothers, but more frequently casual comrades. In
Kohler's notes on Imbriani, p. 356-7, he points out that there are
three different forms, in the first of which the fairy's gifts are
recovered by means of a defect produced, which only one of the
soldiers can cure. In the second form the latter part is wanting, and
in the third the two gifts are restored by means of the third, which
is generally in the form of a stick. See _English Fairy Tales_, No.
32. In my reconstruction I have followed the first form. Cosquin, XI.,
has a fairly good variant of this, with comparative notes. Crane,
XXXI., gives, from Gonzenbach, the story of the shepherd boy who makes
the princess laugh, which is allied to our formula, mainly by its
second part. And it is curious to find the three soldiers reproduced
in Campbell's Gaelic, No. 10. In this version the magic gifts are
wheedled out of the soldiers by the princess, but they get them back
and go back to their "girls."

In the Chinese version of the Buddhist Tripitaka, a monk presents a
man who has befriended him with a copper jug, which gives him all he
wishes. The king gets this from the monk, but has to return it when he
gets another jar which is full of sticks and stones. Aarne in
_Fennia_, xxvii., 1-96, 1909, after a careful study of the numerous
variants of the East and West, declares that the original contained
three gifts and arose in southern Europe. From the three gifts came
three persons and afterwards the form in which only two gifts occur.
Against this is the earliest of the Tripitaka versions, 516 A.D.,
which has only two magic gifts. Albertus Magnus was credited with a
bag out of which used to spring lads with cudgels to assail his


This story is familiar to English-speaking children as Jack the Giant
Killer, but it is equally widespread abroad as told of a little tailor
or cobbler. In the former case there is almost invariably the
introduction of the ingenious incident, "Seven at a Blow," the number
varying from three to twenty-seven. I have adopted a fair average. The
latter part of the story is found very early in M. Montanus,
_Wegfuehrer_, Strassburg, 1557, though most of the incidents occur in
folk tales scattered throughout the European area. Bolte even suggests
that the source of the whole formula is to be found in Montanus and
gives references to early chapbook visions in German, Dutch, Danish,
Swedish and English (i., 154-6). But the very numerous versions in
East Europe must in that case have been derived from oral tradition
from these.

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