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1. Passages in italics are surrounded by _underscores_.
2. 4 minor spelling corrections have been made. See list at end of text.




Édition d'Élite




Historical Tales

The Romance of Reality


By

CHARLES MORRIS

_Author of "Half-Hours with the Best American Authors," "Tales from
the Dramatists," etc._


IN FIFTEEN VOLUMES

Volume XII


Japanese and Chinese


J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY
PHILADELPHIA AND LONDON


Copyright, 1898, by J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY.

Copyright, 1904, by J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY.

Copyright, 1908, by J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY.


[Illustration: GREAT GATE NIKKO.]




_CONTENTS._


PAGE

THE FIRST OF THE MIKADOS 5

HOW CIVILIZATION CAME TO JAPAN 12

YAMATO-DAKÉ, A HERO OF ROMANCE 19

JINGU, THE AMAZON OF JAPAN 27

THE DECLINE OF THE MIKADOS 35

HOW THE TAIRA AND THE MINAMOTO FOUGHT FOR POWER 41

THE BAYARD OF JAPAN 51

THE HOJO TYRANNY 59

THE TARTAR INVASION OF JAPAN 67

NOBUNAGA AND THE FALL OF THE BUDDHISTS 73

HOW A PEASANT BOY BECAME PREMIER 80

THE FOUNDER OF YEDO AND OF MODERN FEUDALISM 86

THE PROGRESS OF CHRISTIANITY IN JAPAN 97

THE DECLINE AND FALL OF CHRISTIANITY IN JAPAN 106

THE CAPTIVITY OF CAPTAIN GOLOWNIN 113

THE OPENING OF JAPAN 123

THE MIKADO COMES TO HIS OWN AGAIN 133

HOW THE EMPIRE OF CHINA AROSE AND GREW 142

CONFUCIUS, THE CHINESE SAGE 150

THE FOUNDER OF THE CHINESE EMPIRE 156

KAOTSOU AND THE DYNASTY OF THE HANS 172

THE EMPRESS POISONER OF CHINA 180

THE INVASION OF THE TARTAR STEPPES 186

THE "CRIMSON EYEBROWS" 192

THE CONQUEST OF CENTRAL ASIA 197

THE SIEGE OF SINCHING 202

FROM THE SHOEMAKER'S BENCH TO THE THRONE 205

THREE NOTABLE WOMEN 212

THE REIGN OF TAITSONG THE GREAT 217

A FEMALE RICHELIEU 223

THE TARTARS AND GENGHIS KHAN 228

HOW THE FRIARS FARED AMONG THE TARTARS 236

THE SIEGE OF SIANYANG 242

THE DEATH-STRUGGLE OF CHINA 249

THE PALACE OF KUBLAI KHAN 255

THE EXPULSION OF THE MONGOLS 264

THE RISE OF THE MANCHUS 272

THE MANCHU CONQUEST OF CHINA 281

THE CAREER OF A DESERT CHIEF 290

THE RAID OF THE GOORKHAS 299

HOW EUROPE ENTERED CHINA 306

THE BURNING OF THE SUMMER PALACE 315

A GREAT CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT AND ITS FATE 323

COREA AND ITS NEIGHBORS 330

THE BATTLE OF THE IRON-CLADS 339

PROGRESS IN JAPAN AND CHINA 347




LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


JAPANESE AND CHINESE.


PAGE

GREAT GATE, NIKKO _Frontispiece._

FUJIYAMA 10

SHUZENJI VILLAGE, IDZU 36

FARMERS PLANTING RICE SPROUTS, JAPAN 52

LETTER-WRITING IN JAPAN 63

KARAMO TEMPLE, NIKKO 78

RETURNING FROM MARKET, JAPAN 98

MAIN STREET, YOKOHAMA 108

CHUSENJI ROAD AND DAIYA RIVER 132

A CHINESE IRRIGATION WHEEL 165

AN ITINERANT COBBLER, CANTON, CHINA 180

A CHINESE PAGODA 197

WATER CART, PEKIN, CHINA 210

SHANGHAI, FROM THE WATER-SIDE 222

MARKET SCENE IN SHANGHAI 255

CHINESE GAMBLERS 281

CHAIR AND CAGO CARRIERS 306

STREET SCENE, PEKIN, CHINA 318

A BRONZE-WORKER'S SHOP 330

THE PEKIN GATE 347

* * * * *




_THE FIRST OF THE MIKADOS._


The year 1 in Japan is the same date as 660 B.C. of the Christian era,
so that Japan is now in its twenty-sixth century. Then everything began.
Before that date all is mystery and mythology. After that date there is
something resembling history, though in the early times it is an odd
mixture of history and fable. As for the gods of ancient Japan, they
were many in number, and strange stories are told of their doings. Of
the early men of the island kingdom we know very little. When the
ancestors of the present Japanese arrived there they found the islands
occupied by a race of savages, a people thickly covered with hair, and
different in looks from all the other inhabitants of Asia. These in time
were conquered, and only a few of them now remain,--known as Ainos, and
dwelling in the island of Yezo.

In the Japanese year 1 appeared a conqueror, Jimmu Tenno by name, the
first of the mikados or emperors. He was descended from the goddess of
the Sun, and made his home at the foot of Kirishima, a famous mountain
in the island of Kiushiu, the most southerly of the four large islands
of Japan. As to the smaller islands of that anchored empire, it may be
well to say that they form a vast multitude of all shapes and sizes,
being in all nearly four thousand in number. The Sea of Japan is truly
a sea of islands.

By way of the sailing clouds, and the blue sky which rests upon
Kirishima's snowy top, the gods stepped down from heaven to earth. Down
this celestial path came Jimmu's ancestors, of whom there were four
between him and the mighty Sun goddess. Of course no one is asked to
accept this for fact. Somewhat too many of the fathers of nations were
sons of the gods. It may be that Jimmu was an invader from some foreign
land, or came from a band of colonists who had settled at the mountain's
foot some time before, but the gods have the credit of his origin.

At any rate, Hiuga, as the region in which he dwelt was called, was not
likely to serve the ends of a party of warlike invaders, there being no
part of Japan less fertile. So, as the story goes, Jimmu, being then
fifty years old, set out to conquer some richer realm. He had only a few
followers, some being his brothers, the others his retainers, all of
them, in the language of the legends, being _kami_, or gods. Jimmu was
righteous; the savages were wicked, though they too had descended from
the gods. These savages dwelt in villages, each governed by a head-man
or chief. They fought hard for their homes, and were not easily driven
away.

The story of Jimmu's exploits is given in the _Kojiki_, or "Book of
Ancient Traditions," the oldest book of Japan. There is another, called
the _Nihongi_, nearly as old, being composed in 720 A.D. These give us
all that is known of the ancient history of the island, but are so full
of myths and fables that very little of the story is to be trusted.
Histories of later times are abundant, and form the most important part
of the voluminous literature of Japan. The islanders are proud of their
history, and have preserved it with the greatest care, the annals of
cities and families being as carefully preserved as those of the state.

Jimmu the conqueror, as his story is told in the _Kojiki_, met strange
and frightful enemies on his march. Among them were troops of spiders of
colossal size and frightful aspect, through whose threatening ranks he
had to fight his way. Eight-headed serpents had also to be dealt with,
and hostile deities--wicked gods who loved not the pious
adventurer--disputed his path. Some of these he rid himself of by
strength of arm and sharpness of sword, some by shrewdness of wit. His
line of march lay to Usa, in the district of Buzen; thence to Okada,
where he took ship and made his way through the windings of the Suwo
Nada, a part of the Inland Sea of Japan.

Landing in Aki, Jimmu built himself a palace, and dwelt there for seven
years, after which he sought the region of Bizen, where for eight years
more he lived in peace. Then, stirred once more by his in-dwelling love
of adventure, he took to the sea again with his faithful band and sailed
to the eastward. Rough waves and swift currents here disputed his way,
and it was with difficulty that he at length landed on Hondo, the main
island of Japan, near where the city of Osaka now stands. He named the
spot _Nami Haya_ ("swift waves").

Jimmu Tenno, the name of the conqueror, means "spirit of war," and so
far victory had perched upon his banners as he marched. But now defeat
came.



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