A B C D E F
G H I J K L M 

Total read books on site:
more than 10 000

You can read its for free!


Text on one page: Few Medium Many
Is my course more
aggravating to the weakness of destitute unemployed freed people,
than emigrant societies, intelligence offices, benevolent ladies'
societies, and young men's Christian associations, to give work
to the poor of all nations; and lastly the Government Indian
department, that has wisely called to its aid the American
missionary, and the Quaker societies, to farm out the poor
Indians? or, if the measures put forth by these admissible agents
can raise the ambition and stimulate to self-reliance their
beneficiaries, will you be good enough to show wherein the same
means, which I claim to employ, must have the opposite effect
upon the freedmen crowded into Washington.

Is it possible that the swarming of the Irish, Swiss, and German
poor, to the city of New York, is attributable to the
intelligence offices and immigration societies of your city, and
not, as we have supposed, to the want of work and bread at home,
and is there really a danger, that in providing and calculating
for them, we shall strengthen the argument of race, while our
institutions of charity are filled with descendants of the Saxon,
the Norman, the Goth, and the Vandal? I think not.

Respectfully yours, JOSEPHINE S. GRIFFING.


_From the New National Era._

MRS. JOSEPHINE S. GRIFFING THE ORIGINATOR OF THE FREEDMEN's
BUREAU.

This truly excellent and noble woman was fitly spoken of in the
_New National Era_ just after her death, but at that early date
it was not possible to obtain the facts to prove the statement at
the head of this article, which is but simple truth and historic
justice.

Mrs. Griffing was engaged in an arduous work for the Loyal League
in the Northwest in 1862, and foresaw the need of a comprehensive
system of protection, help, and education, for the slaves in the
trying transition of freedom. She sought counsel and aid from fit
persons in Ohio and Michigan, and came here only in 1863 to begin
her work of urging the plan of a Bureau for that purpose. Nothing
daunted by coldness or indifference she nobly persisted, until in
December, 1863, a bill for a Bureau of Emancipation was
introduced in the House of Representatives by Hon T. D. Elliott,
of Massachusetts. After some changes in the bill, and a committee
of conference of the House and Senate, and the valuable aid of
Sumner, Wilson, and other Senators, the bill for the Freedman's
Bureau finally passed in March, 1865, and was signed by President
Lincoln just before his assassination.

The original idea was Mrs. Griffing's; her untiring efforts gave
it life, and it is but just that the colored people, of the South
especially, should bear in grateful remembrance this able and
gentle woman, whose life and strength were spent for their poor
sufferers, and who called into useful existence that great
national charity, the Freedman's Bureau.

The following letter from William Lloyd Garrison to Giles B. Stebbins,
then in Washington, corroborates the above statements:


ROXBURY, MASS., _March 4, 1872_.

MY DEAR FRIEND: ... I was glad to see the well-merited tributes
paid by yourself and others to the memory of Mrs. Josephine S.
Griffing. She was, for a considerable period, actively engaged in
the anti-slavery struggle in Ohio, where by her rare executive
ability and persuasiveness as a public lecturer, she aided
greatly in keeping the abolition flag flying, enlightening and
changing public sentiment, and hastening the year of jubilee.
With what unremitting zeal and energy did she espouse the cause
of the homeless, penniless, benighted, starving freedmen, driven
by stress of circumstances into the national capital in such
overwhelming numbers; and what a multitude were befriended and
saved through her moving appeals in their behalf! How like an
angel of mercy must she have seemed to them all! No doubt the
formation of the Freedman's Bureau was mainly due to her
representations as to its indispensable necessity; and how much
good was done by that instrumentality in giving food, clothing,
and protection to those who were so suddenly brought out of the
house of bondage, as against the ferocity of the rebel element,
it is difficult to compute because of its magnitude. She deserves
to be gratefully remembered among "the honorable women not a
few," who, in their day and generation, have been

"Those starry lights of virtue that diffuse,
Through the dark depths of time their vital flame,"

whose self-abnegation and self-sacrifice in the cause of
suffering humanity having been absolute, and who have nobly
vindicated every claim made by their sex to full equality with
men in all that serves to dignify human nature. Her rightful
place is among "the noble army of martyrs," for her life was
undoubtedly very much shortened by her many cares and heavy
responsibilities and excessive labors in behalf of the pitiable
objects of her sympathy and regard.

Very truly yours, WILLIAM LLOYD GARRISON.


PARKER PILLSBURY, in a letter to Mrs. Stebbins says: "The
anti-slavery conflict could never boast a braver, truer, abler
advocate than Josephine Griffing. It was always an honor and
inspiration to stand by her side, no matter how fierce the
encounter. I have seen her when an infuriated mob assailed our
Conventions, and dashed down doors, windows, seats, stoves,
tables, everything that would yield to their demoniac rage, stand
amid the ruins calm and unmoved, and with her gentle words of
remonstrance shame the intruders, until one by one they shrank
away, glad to get out of her sight.

Her beautiful home hospitalities; her warm welcome ever extended
to the faithful friends of freedom and humanity, were equal to
her unshaken courage and self-control in public assemblies. We
used to call that humble home in Litchfield, 'The Saint's Rest,'
and such it was to many a fugitive slave, as well as soldier in
his cause.

To the first demand for the enfranchisement of women in 1848, Mrs.
Griffing heartily responded, and in this reform she was ever untiring
in effort, wise in counsel, and eminent in public speech. In 1867 she
helped to organize the Universal Franchise Association of the District
of Columbia, of which she was president for years. She was also
Corresponding Secretary of the National Woman Suffrage Association,
and was ever considered the organizing power at Washington. She first
suggested the importance of annual conventions at the capital, in
order to influence Congressional action.

Mrs. Griffing's last appearance in public was at the May Anniversary
of the National Woman Suffrage Association, held in New York in 1871,
and so feeble was her condition that a screen was placed behind her to
enable the audience to hear her voice. At the close of the Convention
she went to the home of her childhood, in Hebron, Conn., hoping that
the bracing air of the New England hills would give her new life and
strength, until she could finish her work. But it was already
finished. She had taxed herself to the uttermost, beyond nature's
power to recuperate. In November she returned to Washington, and
enjoyed the sweet presence and tender care of her daughters until she
passed away on Feb. 18, 1872.


THE LADIES' NATIONAL COVENANT.

After the war was fairly inaugurated, the manufactories of the country
largely turned their attention to the production of material required
by the army, which, combined with the immense number of volunteers
from such avocations, and the rise in prices of all home manufactures,
created an immense import of foreign goods, which, pouring into our
country when gold was at the highest, brought to our doors a danger no
less formidable than that of the Rebellion. It was shown from official
returns, in 1863, that during a period of nine months, the imports, at
the port of New York alone, amounted to $160,000,000 in gold; equal,
including exchange, freight, insurance, etc., to twice that sum, while
our exports amounted to only $120,000,000 in paper.

This ruinous state of our trade brought on us the taunts of foreign
enemies, and roused the attention of the country to devise some method
of meeting the new danger; Congress temporarily raised duties fifty
per cent. in hopes of stemming the tide of importation. The patriotic
women of the nation, ever on the alert for methods of aiding the
country, early in 1864 called a meeting of the loyal women of
Washington, at which time an association, pledging women to the use of
home manufactures, was formed under the name of "The Ladies' National
Covenant," with offices in every State and Territory within the
national lines. Mrs. General Jas. Taylor was elected President; Mrs.
Stephen A. Douglas, Vice-President; Mrs. Rebecca Gillis and Miss
Virginia Smith, Recording Secretaries; with ten Corresponding
Secretaries, of whom Mrs. H. C. Ingersoll was the most active.

This association, formed for the purpose of encouraging domestic
manufactures, was composed at its first meeting of the wives of
members of the Cabinet and of Senators and Representatives, women of
fashion, popular authoresses, mothers who had lost their sons, and
wives who had lost their husbands. An Advisory and Organizing
Committee was appointed, consisting of women from each State and
Territory within the national line. An ADDRESS TO THE WOMEN OF AMERICA
was issued, and a constitution consisting of eleven sections, together
with the following pledge, was adopted:


THE PLEDGE.

For three years, or during the war, we pledge ourselves to each
other and the country, to purchase no imported goods where those
of American manufacture can be obtained, such as "dress goods of
velvet, silks, grenadines, India crape, and imported organdies,
India lace and broche shawls, fine wrought laces and
embroideries, watches and precious stones, hair ornaments, fans,
artificial flowers and feathers, carpets, furniture, silks and
velvets, painted china, ormolu, bronze, marble, ornaments, and
mirrors."

The emblem of this Covenant was a black or gilt bee, worn as a pin
fastening the national colors, upon the hair, arm, or bosom, as a
public recognition of membership.



Pages: | Prev | | 1 | | 2 | | 3 | | 4 | | 5 | | 6 | | 7 | | 8 | | 9 | | 10 | | 11 | | 12 | | 13 | | 14 | | 15 | | 16 | | 17 | | 18 | | 19 | | 20 | | 21 | | 22 | | 23 | | 24 | | 25 | | 26 | | 27 | | 28 | | 29 | | 30 | | 31 | | 32 | | 33 | | 34 | | 35 | | 36 | | 37 | | 38 | | 39 | | 40 | | 41 | | 42 | | 43 | | 44 | | 45 | | 46 | | 47 | | 48 | | 49 | | 50 | | 51 | | 52 | | 53 | | 54 | | 55 | | 56 | | 57 | | 58 | | 59 | | 60 | | 61 | | 62 | | 63 | | 64 | | 65 | | 66 | | 67 | | 68 | | 69 | | 70 | | 71 | | 72 | | 73 | | 74 | | 75 | | 76 | | 77 | | 78 | | 79 | | 80 | | 81 | | 82 | | 83 | | 84 | | 85 | | 86 | | 87 | | 88 | | 89 | | 90 | | 91 | | 92 | | 93 | | 94 | | 95 | | 96 | | 97 | | 98 | | 99 | | 100 | | 101 | | 102 | | 103 | | 104 | | 105 | | 106 | | 107 | | 108 | | 109 | | 110 | | 111 | | 112 | | 113 | | 114 | | 115 | | 116 | | 117 | | 118 | | 119 | | 120 | | 121 | | 122 | | 123 | | 124 | | 125 | | 126 | | 127 | | 128 | | 129 | | 130 | | 131 | | 132 | | 133 | | 134 | | 135 | | 136 | | 137 | | 138 | | 139 | | 140 | | 141 | | 142 | | 143 | | 144 | | 145 | | 146 | | 147 | | 148 | | 149 | | 150 | | 151 | | 152 | | 153 | | 154 | | 155 | | 156 | | 157 | | 158 | | 159 | | 160 | | 161 | | 162 | | 163 | | 164 | | 165 | | 166 | | 167 | | 168 | | 169 | | 170 | | 171 | | 172 | | 173 | | 174 | | 175 | | 176 | | 177 | | 178 | | 179 | | 180 | | 181 | | 182 | | 183 | | 184 | | 185 | | 186 | | 187 | | 188 | | 189 | | 190 | | 191 | | 192 | | 193 | | 194 | | 195 | | 196 | | 197 | | 198 | | 199 | | 200 | | 201 | | 202 | | 203 | | 204 | | 205 | | 206 | | 207 | | 208 | | 209 | | 210 | | 211 | | 212 | | 213 | | 214 | | 215 | | 216 | | 217 | | 218 | | 219 | | 220 | | 221 | | 222 | | 223 | | 224 | | 225 | | 226 | | 227 | | 228 | | 229 | | 230 | | 231 | | 232 | | 233 | | 234 | | 235 | | 236 | | 237 | | 238 | | 239 | | 240 | | 241 | | 242 | | 243 | | 244 | | 245 | | 246 | | 247 | | 248 | | 249 | | 250 | | 251 | | 252 | | 253 | | 254 | | 255 | | 256 | | 257 | | 258 | | 259 | | 260 | | 261 | | 262 | | 263 | | 264 | | 265 | | 266 | | 267 | | 268 | | 269 | | 270 | | 271 | | 272 | | 273 | | 274 | | 275 | | 276 | | 277 | | 278 | | 279 | | 280 | | 281 | | 282 | | 283 | | 284 | | 285 | | 286 | | 287 | | 288 | | 289 | | 290 | | 291 | | 292 | | 293 | | 294 | | 295 | | 296 | | 297 | | 298 | | 299 | | 300 | | 301 | | 302 | | 303 | | 304 | | 305 | | 306 | | 307 | | 308 | | 309 | | 310 | | 311 | | 312 | | 313 | | 314 | | 315 | | 316 | | 317 | | 318 | | 319 | | 320 | | 321 | | 322 | | 323 | | 324 | | 325 | | 326 | | 327 | | 328 | | 329 | | 330 | | 331 | | 332 | | 333 | | 334 | | 335 | | 336 | | 337 | | 338 | | 339 | | 340 | | 341 | | 342 | | 343 | | 344 | | 345 | | 346 | | 347 | | 348 | | 349 | | 350 | | 351 | | 352 | | 353 | | 354 | | 355 | | 356 | | 357 | | 358 | | 359 | | 360 | | Next |

N O P Q R S T
U V W X Y Z 

Your last read book:

You dont read books at this site.