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Miss
Carrie Burnham made an interesting argument showing that the
disabilities of women might be directly traced to papal decrees; to
the canon rather than the civil law. Miss Lillie Devereux Blake made a
strong appeal on the duty of enfranchising the women of the Nation
before celebrating the coming Centennial. She thought it would be an
act of justice that would glorify that day as it could be done in no
other manner. Belva A. Lockwood, Marilla M. Ricker, Catharine
Stebbins, Lavinia Dundore, and Dr. Clemence Lozier, all took part in
the discussion of the resolutions.

3. _Resolved_, That as the duties of citizens are the outgrowth
of their rights, a class denied the common rights of citizenship
should be exempt from all duties to the State. Hence the Misses
Smith, of Glastonbury, Conn., and Abby Kelly Foster, of
Worcester, Mass., who refused to pay taxes because not allowed to
vote, suffered gross injustice and oppression at the hands of
State officials, who seized and sold their property for taxes.

4. _Resolved_, That to deny the right of suffrage to the women of
the Nation, is a dangerous innovation on the rights of man, since
the assumed power to deny the right to one class, is the implied
power to deny it to all others; acting on this principle, New
Hampshire abridges the rights of her citizens by forbidding
Catholics to hold office; and Rhode Island abridges the rights of
her citizens by forbidding foreigners to vote, except on a
property qualification.

5. _Resolved_, That our thanks are due to the Hon. A. A. Sargent
and the other eighteen Senators who voted for woman suffrage on
the Pembina Bill, and to the 40,000 brave men who went to the
polls and voted for woman suffrage in Michigan.

6. _Resolved_, That in the death of Martha C. Wright, the
President of our National Association, Dr. Harriot K. Hunt, the
first woman in the country who entered the medical profession,
the Rev. Beriah Green, and the Hon. Gerrit Smith, steadfast
advocates of woman suffrage, we have in the last year been called
to mourn the loss of four most efficient and self-sacrificing
friends of our movement--women and men alike true to the great
principles of republican government.

WHEREAS, It is now proposed to celebrate our coming centennial
birthday as a free Government, inviting the monarchies of the Old
World to join in the festivities, while the women of the country
have no share in its blessings; therefore,

_Resolved_, That the National Woman Suffrage Association will
hold a convention in Philadelphia on July 4, 1876, to protest
against such injustice unless Congress shall in the meantime
secure to woman the rights, privileges, and immunities of
American citizens.

_Resolved_, That we cordially invite all women in the Old World
and the New, to co-operate with us in promoting the objects of
the convention in 1876. As the enfranchisement of woman would be
the most fitting way of celebrating this great event in our
nation's history, women suffragists throughout the country should
now make an united effort with Congress and all State
Legislatures to act on this question, that when the old liberty
bell rings in the dawn of the new century, we may all be free and
equal citizens of a true republic.

MISS ANTHONY said that man neither supports woman nor protects
her. The census reports show that two million women are entirely
independent of men in regard to employments. Thousands of women
do work outside the home from necessity. A million women are
engaged in domestic service providing for their own necessities,
and a million more are supporting their families and drunken
husbands.

Letters were read from Dr. Mary Thomas, President of the Indiana
Association, and from Clara Barton, then traveling in Italy, deploring
the subject condition of women in foreign lands. The day after the
Convention the ladies received their friends in the spacious parlors
at Willard's Hotel. Congressmen, lawyers, clergymen, and many bright
girls from the departments were among the guests. Nothing indicates
the progress of a reform more readily than the cordial social
recognition of its leaders. While pausing now and then to note the
adverse winds we are compelled to encounter in the jealousies,
discords, and divisions of friends, and in the ridicule and
misrepresentation of enemies, a broader vision shows us that the great
tidal waves of thought are all flowing in one direction.

May 11, 1875, the twenty-seventh anniversary of the suffrage movement
was held in the new Masonic Temple, Twenty-third street, New York.
This magnificent Hall for the first time echoed to the demands of
woman for an equal share in the great interests of the world.

The convention was opened with prayer by the Rev. Olympia Brown, who
referred most impressively to the coming Centennial, expressing the
hope that the Fourth of July, 1876, might indeed be a day of jubilee,
in which liberty and justice would be secured to the whole people. The
resolutions[161] were discussed with great spirit by the various
speakers.[162] An interesting letter was read from Isabella Beecher
Hooker, giving some of her experiences and observations in France.

The Hall was crowded in the evening to listen to Mr. Frothingham. His
address was an able exposition of the injustice of the heavy taxes
laid on women. He read several extracts from the reports of William I.
Bowditch, of Boston, in regard to the large number of women in
Massachusetts holding property, and in closing, depicted with great
feeling the constant sacrifices women were compelled to endure because
they had no representation in the Government. After a song by the
Hutchinsons, the large audience slowly dispersed.

At a business meeting next day the officers[163] for the year were
chosen, and arrangements made to canvass Iowa if, as was proposed, an
amendment to the Constitution extending the right of suffrage to the
women of that State, should be submitted to the people.

All thoughts were now turned to the Centennial year, as to what new
forms of agitation could be suggested; what onward steps of progress
accomplished, for after the untiring labors of thirty years, the
leaders in this movement naturally felt that the great event of the
century could not pass without bringing some new liberty to woman.


FOOTNOTES:

[151] 2. _Resolved_, That the present attempts in our courts, by a
false construction of the National Constitution, to exalt all men as
sovereigns, and degrade all women as slaves, is to establish the most
odious form of aristocracy known in the civilized world--that of sex.

3. _Resolved_, That women are "persons" and "citizens," possessed of
all the legal qualifications of voters in the several States--age,
property, and education--and by the XIV. Amendment of the National
Constitution have been secured the right of suffrage.

4.: _Resolved_, That it is the duty of Congress, by appropriate
legislation, to protect women in their exercise of this right.

5. _Resolved_, That women are citizens, first of the United States,
and second of the States and Territories wherein they reside; hence we
claim National protection of our inalienable rights, against all State
authority.

6. _Resolved_, That States may regulate all local questions of
property, taxation, etc., but the inalienable personal rights of
citizenship must be declared by the Constitution, interpreted by the
Supreme Court, protected by Congress, and enforced by the arm of the
Executive.

7. _Resolved_, That the criminal prosecution of Susan B. Anthony by
the United States, for the alleged crime of exercising the citizen's
right of suffrage, is an act of arbitrary authority, unconstitutional,
and a blow at the liberties of every citizen of this nation.

_Business Committee_:--Matilda Joslyn Gage, New York; Belva A.
Lockwood, District of Columbia; Lillie Devereux Blake, New York; Mrs.
Mary Henderson, Missouri; Mrs. Lavinia Dundore, Maryland; Edward M.
Davis, Pennsylvania; Mrs. Mary A. Dobyns, Kentucky; Mrs. Anna C.
Savery, Iowa; Miss Phebe Couzins, St. Louis; Mrs. Jane Graham Jones,
Illinois; Mrs. Helen M. Barnard, District of Columbia; Rev. Olympia
Brown, Connecticut; Robert Purvis, District of Columbia.

_Finance Committee_:--Mrs. Ellen C. Sargent, Belva A. Lockwood; Edward
M. Davis, Ruth Carr Dennison, Helen M. Barnard.

_Committee on Resolution_:--Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Belva A. Lockwood,
Lillie Devereux Blake, Matilda Joslyn Gage.

[152] WOMAN SUFFRAGE ANNIVERSARY.--NATIONAL WOMAN SUFFRAGE
ASSOCIATION.--The Twenty-fifth Woman Suffrage Anniversary will be held
in Apollo Hall, New York, Tuesday, May 6, 1873. Lucretia Mott and
Elizabeth Cady Stanton, who called the first Woman's Rights convention
at Seneca Falls, 1848, will be present to give their reminiscences.
That Convention was scarcely mentioned by the local press; now, over
the whole world, equality for woman is demanded. In the United States,
woman suffrage is the chief political question of the hour. Great
Britain is deeply agitated upon the same topic; Germany has a princess
at the head of its National Woman's Rights organization. Portugal,
Spain, and Russia have been roused. In Rome an immense meeting,
composed of the representatives of Italian democracy, was recently
called in the old Coliseum; one of its resolutions demanded a reform
in the laws relating to woman and a re-establishment of her natural
rights. Turkey, France, England, Switzerland, Italy, sustain papers
devoted to woman's enfranchisement. A Grand International Woman's
Rights Congress is to be held in Paris in September of this year, to
which the whole world is invited to send delegates, and this Congress
is to be under the management of the most renowned liberals of Europe.
Come up, then, friends, and celebrate the Silver Wedding of the Woman
Suffrage movement.



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