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Again and again is this young girl put forward
to tell the people what men in high places dare not say
themselves.

The following resolutions were then read and submitted for
discussion:

1. _Whereas_, The testimony of all history, the teachings of all
sound philosophy, and our national experience for almost a
hundred years, have demonstrated that in the Divine economy there
is an "irrepressible conflict" between slavery and freedom; and

WHEREAS, The present war is but the legitimate fruit of this
unnatural union; therefore

_Resolved_, That any attempt to reconstruct the Government with
any root or branch of the slave system remaining, will surely
prove disastrous, and therefore should be met at the outset with
the stern rebuke of every true patriot and friend of humanity.

2. _Resolved_, That this Government _still_ upholds slavery by
military as well as civil power, and is, therefore, itself, still
in daring rebellion against the GOD OF JUSTICE, before whom
Jefferson "trembled" and whose "exterminating thunders" he warned
us would be our destruction, unless, by "the diffusion of light
and liberality," we were led to exterminate it forever from the
land.

3. _Resolved_, That until the old union with slavery be broken,
and the Constitution so amended as to secure the elective
franchise to all citizens who bear arms, or are taxed to support
the Government, we have no foundations on which to build a TRUE
REPUBLIC.

4. WHEREAS, The _Anti_ or _Pro_-slavery character of the
Constitution has long been a question of dispute among statesmen
and judges, as well as reformers, therefore

_Resolved_, That we demand for the NEW NATION a NEW CONSTITUTION,
in which the guarantee of liberty and equality to every human
being shall be so plainly and clearly written as never again to
be called in question.

5. _Resolved_, That we demand for black men not only the right to
be sailors, soldiers, and laborers under equal pay and protection
with white men, but the right of suffrage, that only safeguard of
civil liberty, without which emancipation is but mockery.

6. _Resolved_, That women now acting as nurses in our hospitals,
who are regular graduates of medicine, should be recognized as
physicians and surgeons, and receive the same remuneration for
their services as men.

7. _Resolved_, That the failure of the Administration to protect
our black troops against such outrages as were long ago
officially threatened, and fearfully perpetrated at Port Hudson,
Milliken's Bend, Olustee, and Fort Pillow, is but added proof of
its _heartless character_ or _utter incapacity_ to conduct the
war.

8. _Resolved_, That when the men of a nation, in a political
party, consecrate themselves to "Freedom and Peace" and declare
their high resolve to found a Republic on the principles of
justice, they have lifted politics into the sphere of morals and
religion, where it is the duty of women to be co-workers with
them in giving immortal life to the NEW nation.

9. _Resolved_, That our special thanks are due to Robert Dale
Owen, who aided us in the inauguration of our work; and to
Charles Sumner, who so earnestly and eloquently presented our
petitions in the Senate of the United States.

10. WHEREAS, From official statistics, it appears that our annual
national expenditures for imported broadcloths, silks, laces,
embroideries, wines, spirits, and cigars, are more than one
hundred million dollars; therefore

_Resolved_, that we recommend the formation of leagues of
patriotic men and women throughout the country, whose object
shall be to discountenance and prevent the indulgence of all
these, and similar useless luxuries during the war; thereby
encouraging habits of economy, stimulating American industry,
diminishing the foreign debt, and increasing our ability to meet
the vast expenditures of the present crisis.

The following letters were read by Miss Anthony:

LETTER FROM EMILE PRETORIUS.

ST. LOUIS, MO., _April 29, 1864_.

MADAM:--Your favor of 23d inst. has come to hand with your call,
which was published and endorsed by our paper, as you will see by
the enclosed slip. Your sentiments are so high and noble that to
doubt a favorable result and response from the West would be like
doubting whether our women had courage enough to follow the
truest instincts, the best impulses of their own pure nature. I,
for one, have no such idea, no such fears; and if I should ever
believe that the Cornelias and Thuseneldas were only to be found
by going back thousands of years in history, and would not and
could not be rivalled by patriotic mothers and heroic wives in
this present crises of ours, I then would renounce at once all
hopes of a national resurrection. Liberty, it is true, is
immortal; but we would be bound to look for her in some other
part of our globe, if we fail on American soil to enlist in our
struggle the full heart of our women.

But there is no such thing as failure in battling for all that is
high and good and sacred, and there is no such thing as failure
in appealing for so good a cause to woman's noble mind and true
heart. They will be with us, every one of them will, and whether
a majority of our people be up to our standard this time or not,
still, in the eyes of our women we would be what our German poet
calls, "the conquering defeated."

Yours for Fremont and Freedom, EMILE PRETORIUS.


LETTER FROM CHARLES SUMNER.

SENATE CHAMBER, _May 6, 1864_.

MADAM:--I can not be with you in New York, according to the
invitation with which you have honored me; for my post of duty is
here. I am grateful to your Association for what you have done to
arouse the country to insist on the extinction of slavery. Now is
the time to strike, and no effort should be spared. And yet there
are many who lap themselves in the luxury of present success, and
hold back. This is a mistake. The good work must be finished; and
to my mind nothing seems to be done while anything remains to be
done. There is one point to which attention must be directed. No
effort should be spared to castigate and blast the whole idea of
_property in man_, which is the corner-stone of the rebel
pretension, and the constant assumption of the partisans of
slavery, or of its lukewarm opponents. Let this idea be trampled
out, and there will be no sympathy with the rebellion; and there
will be no such abomination as _slave-hunting_, which is beyond
question the most execrable feature of slavery itself. Accept my
thanks, and believe me,

Madam, faithfully yours,
MISS SUSAN B. ANTHONY. CHARLES SUMNER.


Speeches were then made by George Thompson, Lucretia Mott, and
Ernestine L. Rose; after which, in adjourning the Convention, the
President said:

This is the only organization of women that will have a
legitimate cause for existence beyond the present hour. The
Sanitary, Soldiers' Aid, Hospital, and Freedmen's Societies all
end with the war; but the soldier and negro in peace have yet to
be educated into the duties of citizens in a republic, and our
legislators to be stimulated by a higher law than temporary
policy. This is the only organization formed during the war based
specifically on universal emancipation and enfranchisement.
Knowing that in this great national upheaval women would exert an
influence for good or evil, we felt the importance of
concentrating all their power on the side of liberty. To this end
we have urged them to use with zeal and earnestness their only
political right under the Constitution: the right of petition.
During the past year the petitions for freedom have been quietly
circulating in the most remote school districts of all the free
States and Territories, in the Army, the Navy, and some have
found their way to the far South. And now they are coming back by
the thousands, with the signatures of men and women, black and
white, soldiers and civilians, from every point of the compass,
to be presented in mammoth rolls again in the coming Congress. I
urge every one present to help spread the glad tidings of liberty
to all, by signing and circulating these petitions, remembering
that while man may use the bullet and the ballot to enforce his
will, this is woman's only weapon of defence to-day in this
Republic. The Convention is now adjourned.

The debates throughout these Conventions show how well the leaders of
the Loyal League understood the principles of republican government,
and the fatal policy of some of those in power. They understood the
situation, and clearly made known their sentiments. The character of
the discussions and resolutions in their Conventions was entirely
changed during the war; broader ideas of constitutional law; the
limits of national power and State rights formed the basis of the new
arguments. They viewed the questions involved in the great conflict
from the point of view of statesmen, rather than that of an ostracised
class. Reviewing the varied efforts of the representative women[46]
referred to in this chapter in the political, military, philanthropic,
and sanitary departments of the Government, and the army of faithful
assistants, behind them, all alike self-sacrificing and patriotic;
with a keen insight into the policy of the Government and the
legitimate results of the war; the question naturally suggests itself,
how was it possible that when peace was restored they received no
individual rewards nor general recognition for their services, which,
though acknowledged in private, have been concealed from the people
and ignored by the Government.[47]

Gen.



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