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Grant has the credit for the success of plans which were the
outgrowth of the military genius of a woman; Gen. Howard received a
liberal salary as the head of the Freedman's Bureau, while the woman
who inspired and organized that department and carried its burdens on
her shoulders to the day of her death, raised most of the funds by
personal appeal for that herculean work.

Dr. Bellows enjoyed the distinction as President of the Sanitary
Bureau, which originated in the mind of a woman, who, when the
machinery was perfected and in good working order, was forced to
resign her position as official head through the bigotry of the
medical profession.

Though to Anna Dickinson was due the triumph of the Republican party
in several of the doubtful States at a most critical period of the
war, yet that party, twenty years in power, has refused to secure her
in the same civil and political rights enjoyed by the most ignorant
foreigner or slave from the plantations of the South.

The lessons of the war were not lost on the women of this nation;
through varied forms of suffering and humiliation, they learned that
they had an equal interest with man in the administration of the
Government, enjoying or suffering alike its blessings or its miseries.
When in the enfranchisement of the black man they saw another ignorant
class of voters placed above their heads, and with anointed eyes
beheld the danger of a distinctively "male" government, forever
involving the nations of the earth in war and violence; a lesson
taught on every page of history, alike in every century of human
experience; and demanded for the protection of themselves and
children, that woman's voice should be heard, and her opinions in
public affairs be expressed by the ballot, they were coolly told that
the black man had earned the right to vote, that he had fought and
bled and died for his country!

Did the negro's rough services in camp and battle outweigh the
humanitarian labors of woman in all departments of government? Did his
loyalty in the army count for more than her educational work in
teaching the people sound principles of government? Can it be that
statesmen in the nineteenth century believe that they who sacrifice
human lives in bloody wars do more for the sum of human happiness and
development than they who try to save the multitude and teach them how
to live? But if on the battle-field woman must prove her right to
justice and equality, history abundantly sets forth her claims; the
records of her brave deeds mark every page of fact and fiction, of
poetry and prose.

In all the great battles of the past woman as warrior in disguise has
verified her right to fight and die for her country by the side of
man. In camp and hospital as surgeon, physician, nurse, ministering to
the sick and dying, she has shown equal skill and capacity with him.
There is no position woman has not filled, no danger she has not
encountered, no emergency in all life's tangled trials and temptations
she has not shared with man, and with him conquered. If moral power
has any value in the balance with physical force, surely the women of
this republic, by their self-sacrifice and patriotism, their courage
'mid danger, their endurance 'mid suffering, have rightly earned a
voice in the laws they are compelled to obey, in the Government they
are taxed to support; some personal consideration as citizens as well
as the black man in the "Union blue."


FOOTNOTES:

[1] Before one man was slain the lint and bandages were so piled up in
Washington, that the hospital surgeons in self-defence cried out,
enough!

[2] Feb. 24, 1862.

[3] In a conversation with Miss Carroll, in February, 1876, Mr. Wade
said: "I have sometimes reproached myself that I had not made known
the author when they were discussing the resolution in Congress to
find out, _but Mr. Lincoln and Mr. Stanton were_ opposed to its being
known that the armies were moving under the plan of a civilian,
directed by the President as Commander-in-Chief. Mr. Lincoln said it
was that which made him hesitate to inaugurate the movement against
the opinion of the military commanders, and he did not wish to risk
the effect it might have upon the armies if they found out some
outside party had originated the campaign; that he wanted the armies
to believe they were doing the whole business of saving the country."

[4] See Appendix.

[5] The ninth, known to the world as the battle of Orleans, fought in
1439, which brought the hundred years' war between France and England
to an end, securing the independent existence of France, possessed for
its organizer and leader, Joan of Arc, then but eighteen, at which
time she acquired her cognomen, "Maid of Orleans."

[6] It has been well said: "That assumption of man that as feud is the
origin of all laws; that as woman does not fight she shall not vote,
that her rights are to be forever held in abeyance to his wishes, was
forever silenced by the military genius of Anna Ella Carroll in
planning this brilliant campaign. Proving, too, that as right is of no
sex, so genius is of no sex."

[7] Hon. L. D. Evans said: "Nothing is more certain than that the
rebel power was able to resist all the forces of the Union, and keep
her armies from striking their resources and interior lines of
communication, upon any of the plans or lines of operation on which
the Union arms were operating. Geographically considered, there was
but one line which the National armies could take and maintain, and
that was _unthought_ of and _unknown_, and could not have been found
out, in all human probability, in time to have prevented a collapse,
or warded off recognition and intervention, but for Miss Carroll. The
failure to reduce Vicksburg from the water, after a tremendous
sacrifice of life and treasure, and the time it took to take Richmond,
furnish irrefragable proof of the inability of the Union to subdue the
rebellion on the plan of our ablest generals.... England and France
had resolved that duty to their suffering operatives required the
raising of the blockade for the supply of cotton, and nothing
prevented that intervention but the progress of the National arms up
the Tennessee.... This campaign must, therefore, take rank with those
few remarkable strategic movements in the world's history, which have
decided the fate of empires and nations."

[8] See Appendix.

[9] But as early as she was thus engaged, one woman had already
preceded her. When the first blood of the war was shed by the attack
upon the Massachusetts troops passing through Baltimore that memorable
April 19, 1861, but one person in the whole city was found to offer
them shelter and aid. Ann Manley, a woman belonging to what is called
the outcast class, with a pity as divine as that of the woman who
anointed the feet of our Lord and wiped them with the hair of her
head--took the disabled soldiers into her own house, and at the hazard
of her life, bound up their wounds. In making up His jewels at the
last great day, will not the Lord say of her as of one of old, "She
has loved much, and much is forgiven her?"

[10] There was no penalty for disobedience, and persons disaffected,
forgetful, or idle, might refuse or neglect to obey with impunity. It
indeed seems most wonderful--almost miraculous--that under such
circumstances, such a vast amount of good was done. Had she not
accomplished half so much, she still would richly have deserved that
highest of plaudits, "Well done, good and faithful servant!"--_Woman's
Work in the Civil War._

[11] When the Spanish minister, Seņor Don Francisco Barca, was
presented to the President, he spoke of America as the "splendid and
fortunate land dreamed of, for the service of God and of human
progress, by the greatest of all Spanish women, before others
conceived of it."

[12] On a pair of socks sent to the Central Association of Relief, was
pinned a paper, saying: "These socks were knit by a little girl five
years old, and she is going to knit some more, for mother said it
would help some poor soldier."

[13] The Christian Commission, an organization of later date, never
succeeded in so fully gaining the affection of the soldiers, who, in
tent or hospital, hailed the approach of medicine or delicacy, with an
affectionate "How are you, Sanitary?"

[14] Organized seven years previously by Dr. Blackwell as an
institution where women might be treated by their own sex, and for
co-ordinate purposes, and out of which the New York Medical College
for Women finally grew.

[15] Women in many other parts of the country were active at as early
a date as those of New York. A Soldiers' Aid Society was formed in
Cleveland, Ohio, April 20, 1861, five days after the President's
proclamation calling for troops. This association, with a slight
change in organization, remained in existence a long time after the
close of the war, actively employed in securing pensions and back pay
to crippled and disabled soldiers. At two points in Massachusetts,
meetings to form aid societies were called immediately upon the
departure of the Sixth Militia of that State for Washington.

[16] Women as loyal as these were to be found in the South, where an
expression of love for the Union was held as a death offence. Among
the affecting incidents of the war, was that of a woman who, standing
upon the Pedee River bank, waved her handkerchief for joy at seeing
her country's flag upon a boat passing up the stream, and who for this
exhibition of patriotism was shot dead by rebels on the shore. During
the bread riots in Mobile a woman was shot. As she was dying she took
a small National flag from her bosom, where she had kept it hidden,
wrapped it outside a cross, kissed it, and fell forward dead.

"Indeed, we may safely say that there is scarcely a loyal woman in the
North who did not do something in aid of the cause--who did not
contribute time, labor, and money, to the comfort of our soldiers and
the success of our arms. The story of the war will never be fully or
fairly written if the achievements of woman in it are left untold.
They do not figure in the official reports; they are not gazetted for
deeds as gallant as ever were done; the names of thousands are unknown
beyond the neighborhood where they live, or the hospitals where they
loved to labor; yet there is no feature in our war more creditable to
us as a nation, none from its positive newness so well worthy of
record."--_Women of the War._

[17] The distinctive features in woman's work in that war, were
magnitude, system, thorough co-operation with the other sex,
distinctness of purpose, business-like thoroughness in details, sturdy
persistency to the close.



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