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The story of the war will never be fully or
fairly written if the achievements of woman in it are left untold.
They do not figure in the official reports; they are not gazetted for
deeds as gallant as ever were done; the names of thousands are unknown
beyond the neighborhood where they live, or the hospitals where they
loved to labor; yet there is no feature in our war more creditable to
us as a nation, none from its positive newness so well worthy of
record."--_Women of the War._

[17] The distinctive features in woman's work in that war, were
magnitude, system, thorough co-operation with the other sex,
distinctness of purpose, business-like thoroughness in details, sturdy
persistency to the close. There was no more general rising among the
men than among the women, and for every assembly where men met for
mutual exertion in the service of the country, there was some
corresponding gathering of women to stir each other's hearts and
fingers in the same sacred cause.... And of the two, the women were
clearer and more united than the men, because their moral feelings and
political instincts were not so much affected by selfishness, or
business, or party considerations.... It is impossible to
over-estimate the amount of consecrated work done by the loyal women
of the North for the army. Hundreds of thousands of women probably
gave all the leisure they could command, and all the money they could
save and spare, to the soldiers for the whole four years and more of
the war.... No words are adequate to describe the systematic,
persistent faithfulness of the women who organized and led the
Branches of the United States Sanitary Commission. Their voluntary
labor had all the regularity of paid service, and a heartiness and
earnestness which no paid service can ever have.... Men were ashamed
to doubt where women trusted, or to murmur where they submitted, or to
do little where they did so much.--_Woman's Work in the Civil War_.
L. P. BRACKETT.

[18] Julia Ward Howe. See Appendix.

[19] See Appendix.

[20] During all periods of the war instances occurred of women being
found in the ranks fighting as common soldiers, their sex remaining
unsuspected.--_Women of the War._

[21] After the close of the war a bill was passed by Congress
authorizing the payment of salary due Mrs. Ella F. Hobart, for
services as chaplain in the Union army. Mrs. Hobart was chaplain in
the First Wisconsin Volunteer Artillery. The Governor of Wisconsin
declined to commission her until the War Department should consent to
recognize the validity of the commission. This Secretary Stanton
refused to do on account of her sex, though her application was
endorsed by President Lincoln, though not by the Government. Mrs.
Hobart continued in her position as religious counselor, Congress at
last making payment for her services.

[22] There are many and interesting records of women who served in
Iowa, Ohio, Michigan, Minnesota, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, New York,
and Pennsylvania Regiments, in the armies of the Potomac, the
Cumberland, the Tennessee, with the Indian Rangers, in cavalry,
artillery, on foot. A woman was one of the eighteen soldiers sent as a
scout at Lookout Mountain--whose capture was deemed impossible--to
ascertain the position of General Bragg's forces; and a woman
performed one of the most daring naval exploits of the war. It was a
woman of Brooklyn, N. Y., who, inspired with the idea that she was to
be the country's savior, joined the army in spite of parental
opposition, and, during the bloody battle of Lookout Mountain, fell
pierced in the side, a mortal wound, by a minie ball. Elizabeth
Compton served over a year in the 25th Michigan cavalry; was wounded
at the engagement of Greenbrier Bridge, Tennessee, her sex being
discovered upon her removal to the hospital, at Lebanon, Kentucky,
where, upon recovery, she was discharged from the service. Ellen
Goodridge, although not an enlisted soldier, was in every great battle
fought in Virginia, receiving a painful wound in the arm from a minie
ball. Sophia Thompson served three years in the 59th O. V. I. Another
woman soldier, under the name of Joseph Davidson, also served three
years in the same company. Her father was killed fighting by her side
at Chickamauga. A soldier belonging to the 14th Iowa regiment was
discovered, by the Provost-Marshal of Cairo, to be a woman. An
investigation being ordered, "Charlie" placed the muzzle of her
revolver to her head, fired, and fell dead on open parade-ground. No
clue was obtained to her name, home, or family.

Frances Hook, of Illinois, enlisted with her brother in the 65th Home
Guards, assuming the name of "Frank Miller." She served three months,
and was mustered out without her sex being discovered. She then
enlisted in the 90th Illinois, and was taken prisoner in a battle near
Chattanooga. Attempting to escape she was shot through one of her
limbs. The rebels in searching her person for papers, discovered her
sex. They respected her as a woman, giving her a separate room while
she was in prison at Atlanta, Ga. During her captivity, Jeff. Davis
wrote her a letter, offering her a lieutenant's commission if she
would enlist in the rebel army, but she preferred to fight as a
private soldier for the stars and stripes, rather than accept a
commission from the rebels. This young lady was educated in a superior
manner, possessing all the modern accomplishments. After her release
from the rebel prison, she again enlisted in the 2d East Tennessee
Cavalry. She was in the thickest of the fight at Murfreesboro, and was
severely wounded in the shoulder, but fought gallantly and waded the
Stone River into Murfreesboro on that memorable Sunday when the Union
forces were driven back. Her sex was again disclosed upon the dressing
of her wound, and General Rosecrans was informed, who caused her to be
mustered out of the service, notwithstanding her earnest entreaty to
be allowed to serve the cause she loved so well. The General was
favorably impressed with her daring bravery, and himself superintended
the arrangements for her transmission home. She left the army of the
Cumberland, resolved to enlist again in the first regiment she met.
The _Louisville Journal_ gave the following account of her under the
head of

"MUSTERED OUT.--'Frank Miller,' the young lady soldier, now at
Barracks No. 1, will be mustered out of the service in accordance with
the army regulations which prohibit the enlistment of females in the
army, and sent to her parents in Pennsylvania. This will be sad news
to Frances, who has cherished the fond hope that she would be
permitted to serve the Union cause during the war. She has been of
great service as a scout to the army of the Cumberland, and her place
will not be easily filled. She is a true patriot and a gallant
soldier."

"Frank," found the 8th Michigan at Bowling Green, in which she again
enlisted, remaining connected with this company. She said she had
discovered a great many women in the army, one of them holding a
lieutenant's commission, and had at different times assisted in
burying three women soldiers, whose sex was unknown to any but
herself.

The _St. Louis Times_, sometime after the war, referring to a girl
called as a witness before the Police Court of that city, says:

"This lady is a historical character, having served over two years in
the Federal army during the war; fifteen months as a private in the
Illinois cavalry, and over nine months as a teamster in the noted Lead
mine regiment, which was raised in Washburne district from the
counties of Jo Daviess and Carrol. She was at the siege of Corinth,
and was on duty during most of the campaign against Vicksburg. At
Lookout Mountain she formed one of the party of eighteen selected to
make a scout and report the position of General Bragg's forces. She
was an _attache_ of General Blair's seventeenth corps during most of
the campaign of the Tennessee, and did good service in the
reconnoitering operations around the Chattahochie River, at which time
she was connected with General Davis' fourteenth corps. She went
through her army life under the cognomen of 'Soldier Tom.'"

The name of Miss Brownlow, of Tennessee, was familiar during the war
for her daring exploits; also that of Miss Richmond, of Raleigh, North
Carolina, who handled a musket, rifle, or shot-gun with precision and
skill, fully equal to any sharp-shooter, and who was at any time ready
to join the clan of which her father, a devoted Unionist, was leader,
in an expedition against the rebels, or on horseback, alone in the
night, to thread the wild passes of the mountains as a bearer of
information.

Major Pauline Cushman and Dr. Mary Walker were also noted for their
devotion to the Union. No woman suffered more or rendered more service
to the national cause than Major Cushman, who was employed in the
secret service of the Government as scout and spy. She carried letters
between Louisville and Nashville, and was for many months with the
army of the Cumberland, employed by General Rosecrans, rendering the
army invaluable service. She was three times taken prisoner, once by
John Morgan, and advertised to be hung in Nashville as a Federal spy,
but she escaped by singular daring and courage. The third time she was
tried and condemned, but her execution was postponed on account of her
illness. After lying in prison three months, she had an interview with
General Bragg, who assured her that he would make an example of her
and hang her as soon as she got well enough to be hung decently.

While she remained in this condition of suspense, the grand army of
Rosecrans commenced its forward march, and one fine day the rebel town
in which she was imprisoned was surprised and captured by the Union
troops under General Gordon Granger, and she was released. After
hearing an account of the sufferings she had undergone for the Union
cause, General Granger determined to bestow upon her a testimonial of
appreciation for her services, and she was accordingly formally
proclaimed a Major of cavalry. The ladies of Nashville, hearing of
this promotion, prepared a costly riding habit trimmed in military
style, with dainty shoulder-straps, etc., and presented the dress to
Miss Cushman.

Dr.



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