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This Woman's Loyal League voiced the solemn lessons of the
war: liberty to all; national protection for every citizen under our
flag; universal suffrage, and universal amnesty.

As no national recognition has been accorded the grand women who did
faithful service in the late war; no national honors nor profitable
offices bestowed on them, the noble deeds of a few representative
women should be recorded. The military services of Anna Ella Carroll
in planning the campaign on the Tennessee; the labors of Clara Barton
on the battle-field; of Dorothea Dix in the hospital; of Dr. Elizabeth
Blackwell in the Sanitary; of Josephine S. Griffing in the Freedman's
Bureau; and the political triumphs of Anna Dickinson in the
Presidential campaign, reflecting as they do all honor on their sex in
general, should ever be proudly remembered by their countrywomen.


ANNA ELLA CARROLL.

THE TENNESSEE CAMPAIGN.

Anna Ella Carroll, the daughter of Thomas King Carroll formerly
Governor of Maryland, belongs to one of the oldest and most patriotic
families of that State. Her ancestors founded the city of Baltimore;
Charles Carroll, of Carrollton, one of the signers of the Declaration
of Independence, was of the same family.

At the breaking out of the civil war, Maryland was claimed by the
rebellious States, and for a long time her position seemed uncertain.
Miss Carroll, an intimate friend of Gov. Hicks, and at that time a
member of his family, favored the national cause, and by her powerful
arguments induced the Governor to remain firm in his opposition to the
scheme of secession. Thus, despite the siren wooing of the South, in
its plaint of

"Maryland, my Maryland."

Miss Carroll was the means of preserving her native State to the
Union. Although a slave-owner, and a member of that class which so
largely proved disloyal, Miss Carroll freed her slaves, and devoted
herself throughout the war to the cause of liberty. She replied to the
secession speech of Senator Breckenridge, made during the July session
of Congress 1861, with such lucid and convincing arguments, that the
War Department not only circulated a large edition, but the Government
requested her to prepare other papers upon unsettled points. In
response she wrote a pamphlet entitled "The War Powers of the
Government," published in December, 1861. By the especial request of
President Lincoln she also prepared a paper entitled "The Relation of
Revolted Citizens to the National Government," which was approved by
him, and formed the basis of his subsequent action. In September,
1861, she also prepared a paper on the Constitutional power of the
President to make arrests, and to suspend the writ of _habeas corpus_;
a subject upon which a great conflict of opinion then existed, even
among persons of unquestioned loyalty.

Early in the fall of 1861, Miss Carroll took a trip to St. Louis to
inspect the progress of the war in the West. A gun-boat fleet, under
the special authorization of the President, was then in preparation
for a descent of the Mississippi. An examination of this plan by Miss
Carroll showed its weakness, and the inevitable disaster it would
bring to the National arms. Her astute military genius led her to the
substitution of another plan, upon which she based great hopes of
success, and its results show it to have been one of the profoundest
strategic movements of the ages. Strategy and generalship are two
entirely distinct forms of the art of war. Many a general, good at
following out a plan, is entirely incapable of forming a successful
one. Napoleon stands in the foremost ranks as a strategist, and is
held as the greatest warrior of modern times, yet he led no forces
into battle. So entirely was he convinced that strategy was the whole
art of war, that he was accustomed to speak of himself as the only
general of his army, thus subordinating the mere command and movement
of forces to the art of strategy. Judged by this standard, which is
acknowledged by all military men, Anna Ella Carroll, of Maryland,
holds foremost rank as a military genius. On the 12th of November,
1861, while still in St. Louis, Miss Carroll wrote to Hon. Edward
Bates at Washington (the member of the Cabinet who first suggested the
expedition down the Mississippi), that from information gained by her
she believed this plan would fail, and urged him, instead, to have the
expedition directed up the Tennessee River, as the true line of
attack. She also dispatched a similar letter to Hon. Thomas A. Scott,
at that time Assistant Secretary of War. On the 30th of this month
(November, 1861), Miss Carroll laid the following plan, accompanied by
explanatory maps, before the War Department:

The civil and military authorities seem to me to be laboring
under a great mistake in regard to the true key of the war in the
South-west. It is not the Mississippi, but the Tennessee River.
Now, all the military preparations made in the West indicate that
the Mississippi River is the point to which the authorities are
directing their attention. On that river many battles must be
fought and heavy risks incurred, before any impression can be
made on the enemy, all of which could be avoided by using the
Tennessee River. This river is navigable for medium-class boats
to the foot of Muscle Shoals in Alabama, and is open to
navigation all the year, while the distance is but two hundred
and fifty miles by the river from Paducah on the Ohio. The
Tennessee offers many advantages over the Mississippi. We should
avoid the almost impregnable batteries of the enemy, which can
not be taken without great danger and great risk of life to our
forces, from the fact that our forces, if crippled, would fall a
prey to the enemy by being swept by the current to him, and away
from the relief of our friends. But even should we succeed, still
we have only begun the war, for we shall then have to fight the
country from whence the enemy derives his supplies.

Now an advance up the Tennessee River would avoid this danger;
for, if our boats were crippled, they would drop back with the
current and escape capture. But a still greater advantage would
be its tendency to _cut the enemy's lines in two_, by reaching
the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, threatening Memphis, which
lies one hundred miles due west, and no defensible point between;
also Nashville, only ninety miles north-east, and Florence and
Tuscumbia in North Alabama, forty miles east. A movement in this
direction would do more to relieve our friends in Kentucky, and
inspire the loyal hearts in East Tennessee, than the possession
of the whole of the Mississippi River. If well executed, it would
cause the evacuation of all those formidable fortifications on
which the rebels ground their hopes for success; and in the event
of our fleet attacking Mobile, the presence of our troops in the
northern part of Alabama, would be material aid to the fleet.

Again, the aid our forces would receive from the loyal men in
Tennessee would enable them soon to crush the last traitor in
that region, and the _separation of the two extremes_ would do
more than one hundred battles for the Union cause. The Tennessee
River is crossed by the Memphis and Louisville Railroad, and the
Memphis and Nashville Railroad. At Hamburg the river makes the
big bend on the east, touching the north-east corner of
Mississippi, entering the north-west corner of Alabama, forming
an arc to the south, entering the State of Tennessee at the
north-east corner of Alabama, and if it does not touch the
north-west corner of Georgia, comes very near it. It is but eight
miles from Hamburg to the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, which
goes through Tuscumbia, only two miles from the river, which it
crosses at Decatur thirty miles above, intersecting with the
Nashville and Chattanooga road at Stephenson. The Tennessee never
has less than three feet to Hamburg on the "shoalest" bar, and
during the fall, winter, and spring months, there is always water
for the largest boats that are used on the Mississippi River. It
follows, from the above facts, that in making the Mississippi the
key to the war in the West, or rather in overlooking the
Tennessee River, the subject is not understood by the superiors
in command.

The War Department looked over these papers, and Col. Scott, the
Assistant Secretary, possessing a knowledge of the railroad facilities
and connections of the South, unequaled perhaps by any other man in
the country at that time, at once saw the vital importance of Miss
Carroll's plan. He declared it to be the first clear solution of the
difficult problem, and was soon sent West to assist in carrying it out
in detail. The Mississippi expedition was abandoned, and the Tennessee
made the point of attack. Both land and naval forces were ordered to
mass themselves at this point, and the country soon began to feel the
wisdom of this movement. The capture of Fort Henry, an important
Confederate post on the Tennessee River serving to defend the railroad
communication between Memphis and Bowling Green, was the first result
of Miss Carroll's plan. It fell Feb. 6, 1862, and was rapidly followed
by the capture of Fort Donelson, which, after a gallant defense,
surrendered to the Union forces Feb. 16th, and the name of Ulysses S.
Grant, as the general commanding these forces, for the first time
became known to the American people. By these victories the line of
Confederate fortifications was broken, and the enemy's means of
communication between the East and the West were destroyed.

All the historians of our civil war concede that the strategy which
made the Tennessee River the base of military operations in the
South-west, thus cutting the Confederacy in two by its control of the
Memphis and Charleston Railroad, also made its final destruction
inevitable.



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