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In conclusion
she offered the following resolutions:

1. _Resolved_, That on this Centennial Anniversary of
American Freedom, we re-affirm the principle that
"Governments derive their just powers from the consent of
the governed"--and that "Taxation without representation is
tyranny." Yet women are governed without consent, and taxed
without representation.

2. _Resolved_, That we celebrate the establishment of woman
suffrage in New Jersey, a hundred years ago, as the prophecy
and forerunner of the American future. We point with pride
to the existence of woman suffrage in Wyoming and Utah, and
we declare that as the first century of Independence has
achieved equal rights and impartial suffrage for men, so the
next century will achieve equal rights for all American
citizens irrespective of sex.

The resolutions were unanimously adopted, and the meeting
adjourned.

* * * * *

The Eighth Annual Meeting of the American Woman Suffrage
Association commenced on October 2, 1876, at Handel and Haydn
Hall, Philadelphia. Mrs. MARY A. LIVERMORE presided and made the
opening address.

The Committee on Credentials made a partial report, showing one
hundred and three delegates present, representing twenty-three
States and Territories. Two other States reported themselves at
the close of the morning meeting, making in all twenty-five
States and Territories[202] represented. Brief addresses were
made by Mrs. Howe and Mrs. Frances W. Harper. Letters were read
from William Lloyd Garrison, and J. W. Kingman, of Wyoming. The
Chairman of the Committee on Resolutions reported the following,
which were accepted for separate consideration:

The American Woman Suffrage Association affirms: That
woman's right to vote already exists in theory under a
government based upon the consent of the governed; that her
right to vote implies her right to take part in the
nomination of her representatives in the primary meetings of
the parties, and that this right can be granted at any time,
by the State Convention of any party, without any change of
constitution or laws.

We therefore recommend the suffragists of each State to
address a memorial to every political convention, asking for
the adoption of a resolution. "That hereafter, women who are
identified in principle with the party, and who possess the
qualifications of age and residence required of male voters,
are invited to take part in its primary meetings, with an
equal voice and vote in the nomination of candidates and the
transaction of business."

_Resolved_, That we congratulate the National Prohibitory
Reform party upon its adoption of woman suffrage in its
platform, and upon the similar action recently taken by that
party in several States; also upon the admission of women to
the Prohibitory caucuses of Massachusetts by the unanimous
invitation of its State Convention, and upon the subsequent
nomination of the same candidates by the woman suffragists
of that State.

_Resolved_, That we rejoice at the beneficent results of
woman suffrage in Wyoming, and at its successful
establishment in the Granges, in the Good Templar Lodges,
and in other co-operative organizations.

WHEREAS, The Constitution of Colorado provides that the
question of extending suffrage to women shall be submitted
to the voters; therefore,

_Resolved_, That the American Woman Suffrage Association
will extend to the Association of Colorado all the aid
possible to secure the desired result.

Rev. B. F. BOWLES, of Philadelphia, was opposed to the adoption,
of the first resolution on the ground that the attempt to obtain
for women a voice and vote in the party caucuses was unwise and
impracticable. Until women were voters no such right should be
demanded. To do so was to begin at the wrong end. A caucus was
and ought to be a conference of voters.

Dr. JOHN CAMERON, of Delaware, doubted the propriety of the
action recommended in the first resolution. Mr. BLACKWELL spoke
briefly in its support.

Mrs. SMITH, of Pittsburgh, stated that as a member of the
Prohibition party of Pennsylvania, she had repeatedly taken part
in the caucuses, and that the same was true elsewhere. By general
consent the further discussion was postponed. Dr. CAMERON, of
Delaware, at the evening session, said that on a more careful
consideration he was convinced that the action proposed was
right, and he should vote in its favor.

Mrs. ABIGAIL SCOTT DUNIWAY supported it by a story of the mice
who planned to bell the cat.

Mr. BLACKWELL spoke at length in favor of making a concerted
effort to secure the admission of women to the nominating
caucuses, and predicted the success of any party which should
adopt that measure, and all the resolutions were then adopted.

Mrs. JULIA WARD HOWE spoke of the determination which exists in
the present age for investigating everything to its utmost
extent, but questioned, however, whether this system of
investigation was not carried too far, when woman suffrage was
refused on the ground that it was not known what women would do
with it when they had it. She said that John Bright was opposed
to woman suffrage, but he did not show any reason why it was not
a good object.

It was said that his opposition arose from the fact that he had
married a woman who was opposed to woman's rights, and if this
were the case, it was an additional reason why women should work
among their own sex in promotion of this object. One important
feature of the British Parliament is, that if the men of the
country are dissatisfied with its action, they have the power to
put the Government out of office, but the women of the country
had only to sit passively by if they are not satisfied with the
administration. Freedom with its concomitants does not promote
despotism in either sex. The ignorant women of to-day, left in
their ignorance, will continue to bring forth slavery, and to
educate their children as the tools of despotism. It was said
that inequality of property is complained of among women, but
that it exists just as much among men. But what is complained of
among women is not inequality of property, but absence of
representation.

Addresses were made by Rev. John Snyder, of St. Louis; Lucy
Stone; Mrs. Duniway, of Oregon, and Mrs. Livermore; after which
the audience rose and united in singing the doxology, and the
meeting adjourned.

In November, 1877, the American Woman Suffrage Association issued
the following:

TO WOMAN SUFFRAGISTS.--We mail to every subscriber of the
_Woman's Journal_ a blank petition to Congress for a XVI.
Amendment. Also, in the same envelope, a woman suffrage
petition to your own State Legislature--Please offer both
petitions together for signature. Thus, with the same amount
of labor, both objects will be accomplished.

Respectfully, LUCY STONE,
_Chairman Ex. Com., Am. Woman Suffrage Assoc._

BOSTON, Nov. 24, 1877.

Later appeared in the _Woman's Journal_ a paragraph to the
effect:

Every subscriber has received from us, by mail, two forms of
petitions; the one addressed to the State Legislature, the
other to Congress. We consider State action the more
important, but signatures to both petitions can be obtained
at the same time.

These petitions should be circulated at once, and sent back
to No. 4 Park St., Boston, by the middle of January. We hope
for more signers than ever before. Friends of woman
suffrage, circulate the petitions!

The result was a petition, sent by the Executive Committee of the
American Woman Suffrage Association into Congress, enrolling
6,000 names.

* * * * *

The Ninth Annual Meeting of the American Woman Suffrage
Association assembled in Masonic Hall at Indianapolis, in 1878.
There was a full attendance of delegates. The evening before the
convention an informal reception was held at the residence of Mr.
and Mrs. M. H. McKay. Among those who called in the course of the
evening to pay their respects, may be named: Judge Martindale,
Mr. and Mrs. George W. Julian, Mr. and Mrs. Addison Harris, Mrs.
Henry Bowan, Governor and Mrs. Baker, Professor and Mrs. Benton,
Professor Brown, and Professor Bell.

The convention was called to order by Mrs. Dr. Thomas, of
Richmond, President of the State Suffrage Association. The
services of the day were formally opened with prayer by Dr. J. H.
Bayliss, of Roberts Park Church. The resolutions[203] were
presented by the Business Committee.

Mrs. I. C. FALES, of Brooklyn: What is needed is an amelioration
of the nature and conditions of man by a powerful moral influence
brought to bear upon all classes and conditions so that the
conscience and the intellect may both be quickened to perceive
and redress the wrongs, with their consequent sufferings, which
inhere in the social structure. The moral sentiment must go into
harness and be thoroughly trained in order to do its work
effectually.



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