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We should be glad
to get more statistics of this kind, for Cleveland, where Dr.
Zakrzewska took her degree, is no longer open to female students, and
Geneva is contenting herself with the honor of having graduated Dr.
Blackwell. There is a female Medical Society in London. This society
wishes to open the way for thorough medical instruction, which will
entitle its graduates to a degree from Apothecaries' Hall, and it
offered lectures from competent persons in 1864, upon Obstetrics and
General Medical Science. Madame Aillot's Hospital of the Maternity in
Paris, still offers its great advantages to women, of which two of our
countrywomen, Miss Helen Morton and Miss Lucy E. Sewall have taken
creditable advantage. They are both of them Massachusetts girls. Miss
Morton is retained in Paris, and Miss Sewall is the resident physician
of the Hospital for Women and Children in Boston.

A very great interest has been felt in this country in the success of
Miss Garrett in obtaining her degree from Apothecaries' Hall, after it
had been refused to her by the medical colleges. We regret to say that
this fact does not show any real advance in the public opinion of
Great Britain, nor does it secure any permanent advantage for women.
When the Apothecaries' Hall refused her, Miss Garrett looked up its
charter. She found the old Latin word indicating to whom degrees were
to be granted clearly _indeterminate_. Langues told her that the Hall
must grant her a degree or surrender its charter. She was wealthy and
in earnest. She pushed her advantage. The Apothecaries' Hall
prescribed certain courses of instruction to be pursued and certified
before the degree could be granted. These she attended in private,
paying the most exorbitant fees to her teachers. In one instance, in
which a man's fee would have been _five_ guineas she paid _fifty_! I
am credibly informed that the round cost of these preparatory steps
must have been 2,000. All honor to Miss Garrett. Should her genius as
a physician equal her energy and her wealth, she may yet gain
something for the cause she has espoused. Apart from this, she may be
said to have gained nothing. Bribery is not possible to ordinary
mortals, and the conditions of the degree make it generally
impracticable until the lecture-rooms are opened to students. At
present, to obtain thorough instruction in any branch, women are
obliged to pay exorbitant prices, and receive as the results of their
training but half wages. In Boston Dr. Zakrzewska has again
unsuccessfully asked permission to become a member of the
Massachusetts Medical Society. Many physicians, however, extend the
fellowship which the institution denies, and the _Medical Journal_
expresses itself courteously on this point.

In 1863 there existed in St. Petersburg a stringent regulation which
prohibited women from following the University courses. A Miss K., who
had a decided taste for medicine without the means to pay for
instruction, applied for such instruction to the authorities of
Orenburg. Orenburg is partly in Europe and partly in Asia, and its
territory includes the Cossack races of the Ural. These people have a
superstitious prejudice against male physicians, and are chiefly
attended in illness by sorceresses. Miss K. offered to put her medical
knowledge at the service of the Cossacks, and received permission to
attend the Academy of Medicine. The Cossacks promised her an annual
stipend of 28 roubles, but when she passed the half-yearly examination
as well as the male students, they sent her 300 roubles as a token of
good will.

In France, a Mlle. Reugger, from Algeria, lately passed a brilliant
examination, and received the degree of Bachelor of Letters. She
appealed to the Dean of the Faculty at Montpellier for permission to
follow the regular course, and was refused on account of her sex. She
then turned to the Minister of Public Instruction, who granted it on
condition that she should pledge herself to practice only in Algeria,
where the Arabs, like the Cossacks, refuse the attendance of male
physicians. Unlike our Russian friend, she refused to give the pledge.
She threw herself upon her rights, and appealed in person to the
Emperor. This was in December last, and I have not been able to find
his decision. It was doubtless given in her behalf, for Louis Napoleon
will always yield as a favor what he would stubbornly refuse as a
right. The physicians of this country have been occupied this winter
in discussing the discovery by one of their number of the active
infectant in fever and ague. It has been found in the dust-like spores
of a marsh plant--the Pamella. In Paris, at the same time, a woman of
rank claims to have discovered the cause of cholera in a microscopic
insect, developed in low and filthy localities. Her details were so
minute, that the Academy of Science, which began by laughing at the
introduction of the matter, has been compelled to listen, and the
subject is now under investigation.


THE PULPIT.

In spite of the bitter words of warning which John Ruskin has thought
it his duty to speak to such women as enter upon theological studies,
a good many women in Great Britain and this country have engaged in
what is properly the work of the Christian ministry. The only ordained
minister whose work has come under our notice since the marriage of
Antoinette Blackwell, is the Rev. Olympia Brown, settled over the
Universalist Society at Weymouth Landing, Mass. Her ministry has been
highly successful, and is to be mentioned here chiefly on account of a
legal decision to which it has given rise. The church at Weymouth
Landing made an appeal to the Legislature last winter as to the
legality of marriages solemnized by her. The Legislature gave the same
general construction to the masculine relatives in the enactment which
the English law gave to the old Latin word in the Charter of
Apothecaries' Hall, deciding that marriages so solemnized are legal,
and no further legislation necessary.


LABOR.

The advance of women, as regards all sorts of labor, in the United
States, has been such as might be expected by watchful eyes, and yet
reports on the general question will not read very differently from
those published ten years ago. In New York, women are still reported
as making shirts at 75 cents a dozen, and overalls at 50 cents. These
women have two protective unions of their own, not connected with the
workingmen's union, and most of them have naturally enough sympathized
with the eight-hour movement, not foreseeing, apparently, that the
necessary first result of that movement would be a decrease of wages
proportioned to the limitation of time. Ever since the beginning of
the war, women have been employed in the public departments North and
South. It has been a matter of necessity, rather than choice. The same
causes combined to drive women into field labor and printing-offices.
All through Minnesota and the surrounding regions, women voluntarily
assumed the whole charge of the farms, in order to send their husbands
to the field. A very interesting account has been recently published
of a farm in Dongola, Ill., consisting of two thousand acres, managed
by a highly educated woman, whose husband was a cavalry officer. It
was a great pecuniary success. In New Hampshire, last summer, I was
shown open-air graperies wholly managed by women, in several different
localities, and was very happy to be told that my own influence had
largely contributed to the experiment. In England field labor is now
recommended to women by Lord Houghton, better known as Mr. Monckton
Milnes, who considers it a healthful resource against the terrible
abuses of factory life. At a meeting of the British Association last
fall, he produced a well-written letter from a woman engaged in
brick-making. This letter claimed that brick-making paid three times
better than factory labor, and ten times better than domestic service.
In addition to persons heretofore mentioned in this country as
employing women in out-door work, I would name Mr. Knox, the great
fruit-grower, who, on his place near Pittsburg, Pa., employs two or
three hundred. I have seen it stated that, during the last four years,
twenty thousand women have entered printing-offices. I do not know the
basis of this calculation, but judging from my local statistics, I
should think it must be nearly correct. To the Committee of the
Massachusetts Legislature, on the eight-hour movement, the following
towns report concerning the wages and labor of women:

Boston--Glass Co., wages from $4 to $8 a week. Domestics, from $1.50
to $3 per week; seamstresses, $1 a day; Makers of fancy goods, 40 to
50 cents a day. Brookline--Washerwomen, $1 a day. Charlestown and New
Bedford are ashamed to name the wages, but humbly confess that they
are very low. Chicopee--Pays women 90 per cent the wages of men.
Concord--Pays from 8 to 10 cents an hour. Fairhaven--Gives to female
photographers one-third the wages of men. Hadley--Pays three-fourths.
To domestics, one-third; seamstresses, one-quarter to one-third.
Holyoke--In its paper mills, offers one-third to one-half.
Lancaster--Pays for pocket-book making from 50 to 75 cents a day.
Lee--Pays in the paper mills one-half the wages of men. Lowell--The
Manufacturing Co. averages 90 cents a day. The Baldwin Mills pay 60 to
75 cents a day. Newton--Pays its washerwomen 75 cents a day, or 10
cents an hour. North Becket--Pays to women one-third the wages of men.
Northampton--Pays $5 a week. Salisbury--For sewing hats, $1 a day.
South Reading--On rattan and shoe work, $5 to $10 a week. South
Yarmouth--Half the wages of men, or less. Taunton--One-third to
two-thirds the wages of men. Walpole--Pays two thirds the wages of
men. Wareham--Pays to its domestics from 18 to 30 cents a day; to
seamstresses, 50 cents to $1. Wilmington--Pays two-thirds the wages of
men. Winchester--Pays dressmakers $1 a day; washerwomen, 12 cents an
hour. Woburn--Keeps its women at work from 11 to 13 hours, and pays
them two-thirds the wages of men.

On the better side of the question, Fall River testifies that women,
in competition, earn nearly as much as men.

Lawrence--From the Pacific Mills, that the women are _liberally_ paid.
We should like to see the figures.



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