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Why have all former republics vanished out of
existence? Simply because they were built upon the sand. In the
erection of a building, in proportion to the height of the walls
must be the depth and soundness of the foundation. If the
foundation is shallow or unsound, the higher you raise your
superstructure the surer its downfall. That is the reason a
republic has not existed as long as a monarchy, because it
embraced principles of human rights in its superstructure which
it denied in its foundation. Hence, before this Republic could
count a hundred years, it has had one of the mightiest
revolutions that ever occurred in any country or in any period of
human existence. Its foundation was laid wrong. It made a
republic for white men alone. It discriminated against color; it
discriminated against sex; and at the same time it pronounced
that all men are created free and equal, and endowed with certain
inalienable rights, among which are life, liberty, and the
pursuit of happiness. It raised its superstructure to the clouds;
and it has fallen as low as any empire could fall. It is divided.
A house divided against itself can not stand. A wrong always
operates against itself and falls back on the wrong-doer. We have
proclaimed to the world universal suffrage; but it is universal
suffrage excluding the negro and the woman, who are by far the
largest number in this country. It is not the majority that rules
here, but the minority. White men are in the minority in this
nation. White women, black men, and black women compose the large
majority of the nation. Yet in spite of this fact, in spite of
common sense, in spite of justice, while our members of Congress
can prate so long about justice, and human rights, and the
rights of the negro, they have not the moral courage to say
anything for the rights of woman.

In proportion to power is responsibility. Our Republican senators
and members of Congress have taken upon themselves great power.
They have made great professions. There is a very good maxim, "Of
him to whom much is given, much shall be required." In proportion
to their claims to be friends of human freedom, lovers of human
rights, do we demand of them our rights and justice.

It is a shame to talk about licensing a social evil. It is a
shame to this Republic. It is a violation of woman's nature. It
is an insult to womanhood; and if woman has one drop of pure
blood stirring in her heart, she must revolt against it. At the
same time, I say to the Legislature that, if you enact laws
against social evils, whatever those laws are, let them be alike
for man and for woman. (Applause.) If you want to derive a
revenue from the corruption of the community, let it be drawn
alike from both sexes. The social evil belongs to both; the
social remedy must belong to both. Do not degrade woman any more
than she is already degraded. Perchance she is driven, through
your injustice, to that step to maintain her wretched existence,
because every office of emolument is barred against her. Let
woman have the franchise; let all the avenues of society be
thrown open before her, according to her powers and her
capacities, and there will be no need to talk about social evils.

Major JAMES HAGGERTY said: It is no new thing for me to be found
among Anti-Slavery people. I believe it was among Anti-Slavery
people that I received my American culture. I see the old faces
here upon this platform and in this house--some that I first met
when I landed in this country, in 1856--Parker Pillsbury, as
remorseless as ever; Mrs. Stanton, as bold and strong for the
truth as ever. I see the same uncompromising people here, and I
feel that I have been as uncompromising as any of them; for,
although I have been and am identified with the Republican party
in politics, no man ever heard me, on any platform, compromise
the rights of another. Woman's Rights is an idea against which my
prejudices array themselves, but my logic says, if you would be a
true man, you must raise your voice for equal rights. (Applause.)
I have seen the effect of the suffrage. In the District of
Columbia, during the election, I saw men who had been called
doughfaces walk up to the black man and profess to be so much
more Anti-Slavery than the best Anti-Slavery men, that I have got
the idea that it will not be five years before the northern
Democrat will be swearing to the black men that he has negro
blood in his veins: (Laughter.) ...

I come upon this platform to-night to identify myself with this
new effort. I hope you may prosper; and so far as a dollar of
mine, or my voice may go, you shall have it. I confess candidly
that it is logic that drives me here, in spite of my prejudices.
It is the discourses of Mrs. Stanton, of Mrs. Mott, of others
that have spoken and written; and it is coming in contact with
strong womanly mind. If we accept the convictions that come to
us, we shall be all right; and I will do as the lady who has just
spoken said that she would do--not be governed by mere party, but
by the moral bearings of the questions that arise, and vote upon
the side of God and justice. (Applause.)

FRANCES D. GAGE said: _Mrs. President_--It seems to be my fate to
come in at the eleventh hour. We have been talking about the
right to the ballot. Why do we want it? What does it confer? We
closed our argument at three o'clock to-day by a discussion
whether the women of this country and the colored men of this
country wanted the ballot. I said it was a libel on woman to say
she did not want it; and I repeat that assertion.... Last evening
I attended the meeting of the National Temperance Association at
Cooper Institute. A great audience was assembled there to listen
to the arguments against the most gigantic evil that now pervades
the American Republic. Men took the position that only a
prohibitory law could put an end to the great evil of
intemperance. New York has its two hundred millions of invested
capital to sell death and destruction to the men of this country
who are weak enough to purchase. There are eight thousand
licensed liquor establishments in this city, to drag down
humanity. It was asserted there by Wendell Phillips that
intemperance had its root in our Saxon blood, that demanded a
stimulus; and he argued from that standpoint. If intemperance has
its root in the Saxon blood, that demands a stimulus, why is it
that the womanhood of this nation is not at the grog-shops
to-day? Are women not Saxons? It was asserted, both by Mr.
Phillips and President Hopkins, of Union College, that the liquor
traffic must be regulated by law. A man may do what he likes in
his own house, said they; he may burn his furniture; he may take
poison; he may light his cigar with his greenbacks; but if he
carries his evil outside of his own house, if he increases my
taxes, if he makes it dangerous for me or for my children to walk
the streets, then it may be prohibited by law. I was at
Harrisburgh, a few days ago, at the State Temperance Convention.
Horace Greeley asserted that there was progress upon the subject
of temperance; and he went back to the time when ardent spirits
were drank in the household, when every table had its decanter,
and the wife, children, and husband drank together. Now, said he,
it is a rare thing to find the dram-bottle in the home. It has
been put out. But what put the dram-bottle out of the home? It
was put out because the education and refinement and power of
woman became so strong in the home, that she said, "It must go
out; we can't have it here." (Applause.) Then the voters of the
United States, the white male citizens, went to work and licensed
these nuisances that could not be in the home, at all the corners
of the streets. I demand the ballot for woman to-day, that she
may vote down these nuisances, the dram-shops, there also, as she
drove them out of the home. (Applause.)

What privilege does the vote give to the "white male citizen" of
the United States? Did you ever analyze a voter--hold him up and
see what he was? Shall I give you a picture of him? Not as my
friend Parker Pillsbury has drawn the picture to-night will I
draw it. What is the "white male citizen"--the voter in the
Republic of the United States? More than any potentate or any
king in all Europe. Louis Napoleon dares not walk the streets of
his own city without his body-guard around him with their
bayonets. The Czar of Russia is afraid for his own life among his
people. Kings and potentates are always afraid; but the "free
white male citizen" of the United States, with the ballot in his
hand, goes where he lists, does what he pleases. He owns himself,
his earnings, his genius, his talent, his eloquence, his power,
all there is of him. All that God has given him is his, to do
with as he pleases, subject to no power but such laws as have an
equal bearing upon every other man in like circumstances, and
responsible to no power but his own conscience and his God. He
builds colleges; he lifts up humanity or he casts it down. He is
the lawgiver, the maker as it were of the nation. His single vote
may turn the destiny of the whole Republic for good or ill. There
is no link in the chain of human possibilities that can add one
single power to the "white male citizen" of America.

Now we ask that you shall put into the hands of every human being
this same power to go forward and do good works wherever it can.
The country has rung within the last few days because one colored
girl, with a little black blood in her veins, has been cast out
of the Pittsburgh Methodist College.



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