A B C D E F
G H I J K L M 

Total read books on site:
more than 10 000

You can read its for free!


Text on one page: Few Medium Many
IDEAL COMMONWEALTHS


PLUTARCH'S LYCURGUS

MORE'S UTOPIA

BACON'S NEW ATLANTIS

CAMPANELLA'S CITY OF THE SUN

AND A FRAGMENT OF

HALL'S MUNDUS ALTER ET IDEM


_WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY HENRY MORLEY_

LL.D., PROFESSOR OF ENGLISH LITERATURE AT UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, LONDON

FIFTH EDITION

LONDON
GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND SONS, LIMITED
BROADWAY, LUDGATE HILL
GLASGOW, MANCHESTER, AND NEW YORK

1890

MORLEY'S UNIVERSAL LIBRARY.


1. _Sheridan's Plays._

2. _Plays from Molière._ By English Dramatists.

3. _Marlowe's Faustus_ and _Goethe's Faust._

4. _Chronicle of the Cid._

5. _Rabelais' Gargantua_ and the _Heroic Deeds of Pantagruel._

6. _Machiavelli's Prince._

7. _Bacon's Essays._

8. _Defoe's Journal of the Plague Year._

9. _Locke on Civil Government_ and _Filmer's "Patriarcha"._

10. _Butler's Analogy of Religion._

11. _Dryden's Virgil._

12. _Scott's Demonology and Witchcraft._

13. _Herrick's Hesperides._

14. _Coleridge's Table-Talk._

15. _Boccaccio's Decameron._

16. _Sterne's Tristram Shandy._

17. _Chapman's Homer's Iliad._

18. _Mediæval Tales._

19. _Voltaire's Candide_, and _Johnson's Rasselas._

20. _Jonson's Plays and Poems._

21. _Hobbes's Leviathan._

22. _Samuel Butler's Hudibras._

23. _Ideal Commonwealths._

24. _Cavendish's Life of Wolsey._

25 & 26. _Don Quixote._

27. _Burlesque Plays and Poems._

28. _Dante's Divine Comedy._ LONGFELLOW'S Translation.

29. _Goldsmith's Vicar of Wakefield, Plays, and Poems._

30. _Fables and Proverbs from the Sanskrit. (Hitopadesa.)_

31. _Lamb's Essays of Elia._

32. _The History of Thomas Ellwood._

33. _Emerson's Essays, &c._

34. _Southey's Life of Nelson._

35. _De Quincey's Confession of an Opium-Eater, &c._

36. _Stories of Ireland._ By Miss EDGEWORTH.

37. _Frere's Aristophanes: Acharnians, Knights, Birds._

38. _Burke's Speeches and Letters._

39. _Thomas à Kempis._

40. _Popular Songs of Ireland._

41. _Potter's Æschylus._

42. _Goethe's Faust: Part II._ ANSTER'S Translation.

43. _Famous Pamphlets._

44. _Francklin's Sophocles._

45. _M.G. Lewis's Tales of Terror and Wonder._

46. _Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation._

47. _Drayton's Barons' Wars, Nymphidia, &c._

48. _Cobbett's Advice to Young Men._

49. _The Banquet of Dante._

50. _Walker's Original._

51. _Schiller's Poems and Ballads._

52. _Peele's Plays and Poems._

53. _Harrington's Oceana._

54. _Euripides: Alcestis and other Plays._

55. _Praed's Essays._

56. _Traditional Tales._ ALLAN CUNNINGHAM.

57. _Hooker's Ecclesiastical Polity. Books I.-IV._

58. _Euripides: The Bacchanals and other Plays._

59. _Izaak Walton's Lives._

60. _Aristotle's Politics._

61. _Euripides: Hecuba and other Plays._

62. _Rabelais--Sequel to Pantagruel._

63. _A Miscellany._

"Marvels of clear type and general neatness."--_Daily Telegraph._




INTRODUCTION.


Plato in his "Republic" argues that it is the aim of Individual Man as
of the State to be wise, brave and temperate. In a State, he says, there
are three orders, the Guardians, the Auxiliaries, the Producers. Wisdom
should be the special virtue of the Guardians; Courage of the
Auxiliaries; and Temperance of all. These three virtues belong
respectively to the Individual Man, Wisdom to his Rational part; Courage
to his Spirited; and Temperance to his Appetitive: while in the State as
in the Man it is Injustice that disturbs their harmony.

Because the character of Man appears in the State unchanged, but in a
larger form, Plato represented Socrates as studying the ideal man
himself through an Ideal Commonwealth.

In another of his dialogues, "Critias," of which we have only the
beginning, Socrates wishes that he could see how such a commonwealth
would work, if it were set moving. Critias undertakes to tell him. For
he has received tradition of events that happened more than nine
thousand years ago, when the Athenians themselves were such ideal
citizens. Critias has received this tradition, he says, from a
ninety-year-old grandfather, whose father, Dropides, was the friend of
Solon. Solon, lawgiver and poet, had heard it from the priests of the
goddess Neïth or Athene at Sais, and had begun to shape it into a heroic
poem.

This was the tradition:--Nine thousand years before the time of Solon,
the goddess Athene, who was worshipped also in Sais, had given to her
Athenians a healthy climate, a fertile soil, and temperate people strong
in wisdom and courage. Their Republic was like that which Socrates
imagined, and it had to bear the shock of a great invasion by the people
of the vast island Atlantis. This island, larger than all Libya and Asia
put together, was once in the sea westward beyond the Atlantic
waves,--thus America was dreamed of long before it was discovered.
Atlantis had ten kings, descended from ten sons of Poseidon (Neptune),
who was the god magnificently worshipped by its people. Vast power and
dominion, that extended through all Libya as far as Egypt, and over a
part of Europe, caused the Atlantid kings to grow ambitious and unjust.
Then they entered the Mediterranean and fell upon Athens with enormous
force. But in the little band of citizens, temperate, brave, and wise,
there were forces of Reason able to resist and overcome brute strength.
Now, however, gone are the Atlantids, gone are the old virtues of
Athens. Earthquakes and deluges laid waste the world. The whole great
island of Atlantis, with its people and its wealth, sank to the bottom
of the ocean. The ideal warriors of Athens, in one day and night, were
swallowed by an earthquake, and were to be seen no more.

Plato, a philosopher with the soul of a poet, died in the year 347
before Christ. Plutarch was writing at the close of the first century
after Christ, and in his parallel Lives of Greeks and Romans, the most
famous of his many writings, he took occasion to paint an Ideal
Commonwealth as the conception of Lycurgus, the half mythical or all
mythical Solon of Sparta. To Plutarch's Life of Lycurgus, as well as to
Plato, Thomas More and others have been indebted for some part of the
shaping of their philosophic dreams.

The discovery of the New World at the end of the fifteenth century
followed hard upon the diffusion of the new invention of printing, and
came at a time when the fall of Constantinople by scattering Greek
scholars, who became teachers in Italy, France and elsewhere, spread the
study of Greek, and caused Plato to live again. Little had been heard of
him through the Arabs, who cared little for his poetic method. But with
the revival of learning he had become a force in Europe, a strong aid to
the Reformers.

Sir Thomas More's Utopia was written in the years 1515-16, when its
author's age was about thirty-seven. He was a young man of twenty when
Columbus first touched the continent named after the Florentine Amerigo
Vespucci, who made his voyages to it in the years 1499-1503. More wrote
his Utopia when imaginations of men were stirred by the sudden
enlargement of their conceptions of the world, and Amerigo Vespucci's
account of his voyages, first printed in 1507, was fresh in every
scholar's mind. He imagined a traveller, Raphael Hythloday--whose name
is from Greek words that mean "Knowing in Trifles"--who had sailed with
Vespucci on his three last voyages, but had not returned from the last
voyage until, after separation from his comrades, he had wandered into
some farther discovery of his own. Thus he had found, somewhere in those
parts, the island of Utopia. Its name is from Greek words meaning
Nowhere. More had gone on an embassy to Brussels with Cuthbert Tunstal
when he wrote his philosophical satire upon European, and more
particularly English, statecraft, in the form of an Ideal Commonwealth
described by Hythloday as he had found it in Utopia. It was printed at
Louvain in the latter part of the year 1516, under the editorship of
Erasmus, and that enlightened young secretary to the municipality of
Antwerp, Peter Giles, or Ægidius, who is introduced into the story.
"Utopia" was not printed in England in the reign of Henry VIII., and
could not be, for its satire was too direct to be misunderstood, even
when it mocked English policy with ironical praise for doing exactly
what it failed to do. More was a wit and a philosopher, but at the same
time so practical and earnest that Erasmus tells of a burgomaster at
Antwerp who fastened upon the parable of Utopia with such goodwill that
he learnt it by heart. And in 1517 Erasmus advised a correspondent to
send for Utopia, if he had not yet read it, and if he wished to see the
true source of all political evils.

Francis Bacon's "New Atlantis," first written in Latin, was published in
1629, three years after its author's death. Bacon placed his Ideal
Commonwealth in those seas where a great Austral continent was even then
supposed to be, but had not been discovered. As the old Atlantis implied
a foreboding of the American continent, so the New Atlantis implied
foreboding of the Australian. Bacon in his philosophy sought through
experimental science the dominion of men over things, "for Nature is
only governed by obeying her." In his Ideal World of the New Atlantis,
Science is made the civilizer who binds man to man, and is his leader to
the love of God.

Thomas Campanella was Bacon's contemporary, a man only seven years
younger; and an Italian who suffered for his ardour in the cause of
science. He was born in Calabria in 1568, and died in 1639. He entered
the Dominican order when a boy, but had a free and eager appetite for
knowledge. He urged, like Bacon, that Nature should be studied through
her own works, not through books; he attacked, like Bacon, the dead
faith in Aristotle, that instead of following his energetic spirit of
research, lapsed into blind idolatry. Campanella strenuously urged that
men should reform all sciences by following Nature and the books of God.
He had been stirring in this way for ten years, when there arose in
Calabria a conspiracy against the Spanish rule.



Pages: | 1 | | 2 | | 3 | | 4 | | 5 | | 6 | | 7 | | 8 | | 9 | | 10 | | 11 | | 12 | | 13 | | 14 | | 15 | | 16 | | 17 | | 18 | | 19 | | 20 | | 21 | | 22 | | 23 | | 24 | | 25 | | 26 | | 27 | | 28 | | 29 | | 30 | | 31 | | 32 | | 33 | | 34 | | 35 | | 36 | | 37 | | 38 | | 39 | | 40 | | 41 | | 42 | | 43 | | 44 | | 45 | | 46 | | 47 | | 48 | | 49 | | 50 | | 51 | | 52 | | 53 | | Next |

N O P Q R S T
U V W X Y Z 

Your last read book:

You dont read books at this site.