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AMERICAN CLASSICS

SALEM WITCHCRAFT

_With an Account of Salem Village
and
A History of Opinions on
Witchcraft and Kindred Subjects_


CHARLES W. UPHAM


[Illustration: [autograph] Charles W. Upham.]


_Volume I_


FREDERICK UNGAR PUBLISHING CO.

_New York_

[Transcriber's Note: Originally published 1867]

_Fourth Printing, 1969_

_Printed in the United States of America_

Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 59-10887

[Illustration: THE TOWNSEND BISHOP HOUSE.--VOL. I., 70, 96;
VOL. II., 294, 467.]




DEDICATED

TO

OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES,

PROFESSOR OF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY IN

HARVARD UNIVERSITY.




CONTENTS.


VOLUME I.

PAGE

PREFACE vii to xiv

MAP AND ILLUSTRATIONS xv to xvii

INDEX TO THE MAP xix to xxvii

GENERAL INDEX xxix to xl

INTRODUCTION 1 to 12

PART FIRST.--SALEM VILLAGE 12 to 322

PART SECOND.--WITCHCRAFT 325 to 469


VOLUME II.

PAGE

PART THIRD.--WITCHCRAFT AT SALEM VILLAGE 1 to 444

SUPPLEMENT 447 to 522

APPENDIX 525 to 553




PREFACE.


This work was originally constructed, and in previous editions
appeared, in the form of Lectures. The only vestiges of that form, in
its present shape, are certain modes of expression. The language
retains the character of an address by a speaker to his hearers; being
more familiar, direct, and personal than is ordinarily employed in the
relations of an author to a reader.

The former work was prepared under circumstances which prevented a
thorough investigation of the subject. Leisure and freedom from
professional duties have now enabled me to prosecute the researches
necessary to do justice to it.

The "Lectures on Witchcraft," published in 1831, have long been out of
print. Although frequently importuned to prepare a new edition, I was
unwilling to issue again what I had discovered to be an insufficient
presentation of the subject. In the mean time, it constantly became
more and more apparent, that much injury was resulting from the want
of a complete and correct view of a transaction so often referred to,
and universally misunderstood.

The first volume of this work contains what seems to me necessary to
prepare the reader for the second, in which the incidents and
circumstances connected with the witchcraft prosecutions in 1692, at
the village and in the town of Salem, are reduced to chronological
order, and exhibited in detail.

As showing how far the beliefs of the understanding, the perceptions
of the senses, and the delusions of the imagination, may be
confounded, the subject belongs not only to theology and moral and
political science, but to physiology, in its original and proper use,
as embracing our whole nature; and the facts presented may help to
conclusions relating to what is justly regarded as the great mystery
of our being,--the connection between the body and the mind.

It is unnecessary to mention the various well-known works of authority
and illustration, as they are referred to in the text. But I cannot
refrain from bearing my grateful testimony to the value of the
"Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society" and the
"New-England Historical and Genealogical Register." The "Historical
Collections" and the "Proceedings" of the Essex Institute have
afforded me inestimable assistance. Such works as these are providing
the materials that will secure to our country a history such as no
other nation can have. Our first age will not be shrouded in darkness
and consigned to fable, but, in all its details, brought within the
realm of knowledge. Every person who desires to preserve the memory of
his ancestors, and appreciate the elements of our institutions and
civilization, ought to place these works, and others like them, on the
shelves of his library, in an unbroken and continuing series. A debt
of gratitude is due to the earnest, laborious, and disinterested
students who are contributing the results of their explorations to the
treasures of antiquarian and genealogical learning which accumulate in
these publications.

A source of investigation, especially indispensable in the preparation
of the present work, deserves to be particularly noticed. In 1647, the
General Court of Massachusetts provided by law for the taking of
testimony, in all cases, under certain regulations, in the form of
depositions, to be preserved _in perpetuam rei memoriam_. The evidence
of witnesses was prepared in writing, beforehand, to be used at the
trials; they to be present at the time, to meet further inquiry, if
living within ten miles, and not unavoidably prevented. In a capital
case, the presence of the witness, as well as his written testimony,
was absolutely required. These depositions were lodged in the files,
and constitute the most valuable materials of history. In our day,
the statements of witnesses ordinarily live only in the memory of
persons present at the trials, and are soon lost in oblivion. In cases
attracting unusual interest, stenographers are employed to furnish
them to the press. There were no newspaper reporters or "court
calendars" in the early colonial times; but these depositions more
than supply their place. Given in, as they were, in all sorts of
cases,--of wills, contracts, boundaries and encroachments, assault and
battery, slander, larceny, &c., they let us into the interior, the
very inmost recesses, of life and society in all their forms. The
extent to which, by the aid of WILLIAM P. UPHAM, Esq., of
Salem, I have drawn from this source is apparent at every page.

A word is necessary to be said relating to the originals of the
documents that belong to the witchcraft proceedings. They were
probably all deposited at the time in the clerk's office of Essex
County. A considerable number of them were, from some cause,
transferred to the State archives, and have been carefully preserved.
Of the residue, a very large proportion have been abstracted from time
to time by unauthorized hands, and many, it is feared, destroyed or
otherwise lost. Two very valuable parcels have found their way into
the libraries of the Massachusetts Historical Society and the Essex
Institute, where they are faithfully secured. A few others have come
to light among papers in the possession of individuals. It is to be
hoped, that, if any more should be found, they will be lodged in some
public institution; so that, if thought best, they may all be
collected, arranged, and placed beyond wear, tear, and loss, in the
perpetual custody of type.

The papers remaining in the office of the clerk of this county were
transcribed into a volume a few years since; the copyist supplying,
conjecturally, headings to the several documents. Although he executed
his work in an elegant manner, and succeeded in giving correctly many
documents hard to be deciphered, such errors, owing to the condition
of the papers, occurred in arranging them, transcribing their
contents, and framing their headings, that I have had to resort to the
originals throughout.

As the object of this work is to give to the reader of the present day
an intelligible view of a transaction of the past, and not to
illustrate any thing else than the said transaction, no attempt has
been made to preserve the orthography of that period. Most of the
original papers were written without any expectation that they would
ever be submitted to inspection in print; many of them by plain
country people, without skill in the structure of sentences, or regard
to spelling; which, in truth, was then quite unsettled. It is no
uncommon thing to find the same word spelled differently in the same
document. It is very questionable whether it is expedient or just to
perpetuate blemishes, often the result of haste or carelessness,
arising from mere inadvertence. In some instances, where the interest
of the passage seemed to require it, the antique style is preserved.
In no case is a word changed or the structure altered; but the now
received spelling is generally adopted, and the punctuation made to
express the original sense.

It is indeed necessary, in what claims to be an exact reprint of an
old work, to imitate its orthography precisely, even at the expense of
difficulty in apprehending at once the meaning, and of perpetuating
errors of carelessness and ignorance. Such modern reproductions are
valuable, and have an interest of their own. They deserve the favor of
all who desire to examine critically, and in the most authentic form,
publications of which the original copies are rare, and the earliest
editions exhausted. The enlightened and enterprising publishers who
are thus providing facsimiles of old books and important documents of
past ages ought to be encouraged and rewarded by a generous public.
But the present work does not belong to that class, or make any
pretensions of that kind.

My thanks are especially due to the Hon. ASAHEL HUNTINGTON, clerk of
the courts in Essex County, for his kindness in facilitating the use
of the materials in his office; to the Hon. OLIVER WARNER, secretary
of the Commonwealth, and the officers of his department; and to
STEPHEN N. GIFFORD, Esq., clerk of the Senate.

DAVID PULSIFER, Esq., in the office of the Secretary of
State, is well known for his pre-eminent skill and experience in
mastering the chirography of the primitive colonial times, and
elucidating its peculiarities. He has been unwearied in his labors,
and most earnest in his efforts, to serve me.

Mr. SAMUEL G. DRAKE, who has so largely illustrated our
history and explored its sources, has, by spontaneous and considerate
acts of courtesy rendered me important help. Similar expressions of
friendly interest by Mr. WILLIAM B. TOWNE, of Brookline,
Mass.; Hon. J. HAMMOND TRUMBULL, of Hartford, Conn.; and
GEORGE H. MOORE, Esq., of New-York City,--are gratefully
acknowledged.

SAMUEL P. FOWLER, Esq., of Danvers, generously placed at my
disposal his valuable stores of knowledge relating to the subject.



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