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The army to be directed on
Montreal 111

Intended junction with the troops from Lake Champlain, under
General Hampton 111

Wilkinson's army assembled within the mouth of the St. Lawrence 114

It proceeds down the river 114

Pursuit by a British detachment 114

American reverse at Chrystler's Farm 115

Hampton fails to join Wilkinson, and returns to Plattsburg 116

The expedition abandoned. Wilkinson goes into winter quarters
at French Mills 116

Chauncey returns to Sackett's Harbor from the St. Lawrence 117

Transports Harrison's division from Niagara to Sackett's Harbor 117

Fleets lay up for the winter 117

Disastrous close of the campaign upon the Niagara 118

Americans evacuate Fort George and the peninsula 120

They burn Newark 120

Act disavowed by the American Government 120

Sir Gordon Drummond in command in Upper Canada 120

The British, under General Riall, cross the Niagara and
capture Fort Niagara 121

Lewiston, Youngstown, and Manchester burned in retaliation for
Newark 121

Buffalo burned, and three naval vessels at Black Rock 121

General failure of the campaign about Lake Ontario 122

Discussion of the causes 123


CHAPTER XIII

SEABOARD MARITIME OPERATIONS, 1813


United States on the defensive on the seaboard 126

British reasons for partially relaxing severity of blockade 127

Reasons do not apply to armed vessels or coasting trade 127

American Navy powerless to protect commerce 127

To destroy that of the enemy its principal mission 128

Cruises of the "President" and "Congress" 128

Efficacy of the British convoy system 130

Its chief failure is near ports of arrival 131

This dictates the orders to Captain Lawrence 131

Importance of the service 132

Imperfect preparation of the "Chesapeake" 132

Efficiency of the "Shannon." Broke's professional merit 133

His challenge to Lawrence. Not received 134

The "Chesapeake" sails, purposely to fight 135

Account of the action 136

The "Chesapeake" captured 140

Analysis of the engagement 141

Decatur fails to get to sea with a squadron 148

Driven to take refuge in New London 148

Frigates confined there for the war 149

Particular anxiety of the British Government about American
frigates 150

Expectations of the Admiralty and the country from Warren's
fleet 151

Effects of the blockade of New London on local coasting 152

Evidence of the closeness of the whole blockade south of
New London 153

Conditions at New York 154

British operations in the upper Chesapeake, 1813 156

Conditions in Delaware Bay 158

American precautions in Chesapeake and Delaware 159

Circumspect conduct of the British vessels in the Chesapeake 161

Warren brings a detachment of troops from Bermuda 162

Rencounters in and near Hampton Roads 163

British attack upon Craney Island. Fails 164

Attack upon Hampton. Ineffective 166

Further movements of the British in the Chesapeake 167

Movement of licensed vessels in Chesapeake Bay during these
operations 170

Consequent recommendation of President to prohibit all
exports during the blockade 173

Rejected by Senate. Enforced in Chesapeake by executive order 174

Glaring necessity for such action 175

Embargo law passed in December, 1813 176

Main British fleet quits the Chesapeake. Its failure in
direct military operation 177

Efficacy of the blockade 177

Characteristics of the different sections of the United
States, as affecting their suffering from blockade 178

Statistical evidences of its effects 181

Prices of great staples: flour and sugar 184

Dependence of Eastern and Southern States upon coasting,
greater than that of Middle States 186

Captain Hull's reports on Eastern coasting 187

Action between the "Boxer" and "Enterprise" 188

Intermission of Eastern blockade during winter 192

Its resumption in increased vigor in 1814 192

Undefended conditions of the American coast 193

Conditions of Southern coasting trade 195

British blockade severs the mutual intercourse of the different
sections of the United States 198

Remarks of Representative Pearson, of North Carolina 199

Message of the Governor of Pennsylvania 200

Rigors of the blockade shown by figures 201

Momentary importance of the North Carolina coast 203

Advocacy of an internal navigation system 204

Evidence of privation in the rebound of prices and shipping
movement after peace 205

Exposition of conditions, in a contemporary letter by a
naval officer 207

The experiences of the War of 1812 now largely forgotten 208

Lessons to be deduced 208

Pressure upon the British Government exerted, even by the
puny contemporary American Navy 209

Advantage of the American position 211

Opinions of Presidents Washington and Adams as to the
international advantage of a navy 212

Policy of President Jefferson 213


CHAPTER XIV

MARITIME OPERATIONS EXTERNAL TO THE WATERS OF THE UNITED STATES,
1813-1814

Commerce destruction the one offensive maritime resort left
open to the United States 215

Respective objects of privateers and of naval vessels 216

The approaches to the British islands the most fruitful
field for operations against commerce 216

Cruise of the "Argus" 217

Capture of the "Argus" by the "Pelican" 217

Significance of the cruise of the "Argus" 219

Great number of captures by American cruisers 220

Comparatively few American merchant ships captured at sea 221

Shows the large scale on which British commerce throve, and
the disappearance of American shipping 221

Control of British Navy shown by American practice of
destroying prizes 222

Successes of the privateers "Scourge" and "Rattlesnake"
in the North Sea 223

The "Leo" and "Lion" off coast of Portugal 224

British army in southern France incommoded by cruisers off
Cape Finisterre 224

American cruises based on French ports 225

The privateer "Yankee" on the gold-coast of Africa 226

Action between the American privateer "Globe" and two British
packets, off Madeira 227

Captures in the same neighborhood by privateers "Governor
Tompkins" and "America" 228

The West Indies as a field for warfare on commerce 229

Activity there of American cruisers 230

Stringency of the Convoy Act in the West Indies. Papers captured
there by the "Constitution" 230

Indirect effects of the warfare on commerce 231

Cruise in the West Indies of the naval brigs "Rattlesnake" and
"Enterprise" 232

Combat between the privateer "Decatur" and British war schooner
"Dominica" 233

The "Comet" and the British ship "Hibernia" 234

The "Saucy Jack" and the British ship "Pelham" 235

The "Saucy Jack" with the bomb-ship "Volcano" and transport
"Golden Fleece" 236

Remarkable seizure by the privateer "Kemp" 237

The cruises of the privateer "Chasseur" 237

Combat between the "Chasseur" and the British war schooner "St.
Lawrence" 238

Contrasted motives of the ship of war and the privateer 241

Relative success of American naval vessels and privateers in
the war upon commerce 242

Cruise of the frigate "Essex" 244

Arrival in Valparaiso of the "Essex," and of the British ships,
"Phoebe" and "Cherub" 247

Action between the "Essex" and the "Phoebe" and "Cherub" 249

Cruise of the "Wasp" 253

Action between the "Reindeer" and "Wasp" 254

Action between the "Avon" and "Wasp" 256

Disappearance of the "Wasp" 257

Cruise of the "Peacock" 258

Action between "Epervier" and "Peacock" 259

Further cruise of the "Peacock" 261

Activity of American cruisers in British waters 262

Agitation in Great Britain 263

The effect produced due to the American people severally 265

Prostration of the Government in the United States, 1814 265

Determination to accept peace without relinquishment of
impressment by Great Britain 266

Development of privateering 267

Adaptation of vessels to the pursuit 268

Practical considerations determining vessels to be employed 269

Secretary of the Navy recommends squadrons of schooners for
action against commerce 270

Debate in Congress 271

Recommendation adopted 272


CHAPTER XV

THE NIAGARA CAMPAIGN, AND EVENTS ON THE GREAT LAKES, IN 1814


British advantages of position on the Niagara line 274

Unusual mildness of winter 1813-1814 276

Effect on operations 276

British project against the vessels in Put-in Bay 277

Difficulty of maintaining British garrison at Mackinac 278

American army abandons cantonments at French Mills 278

Part goes to Lake Champlain, part to Sackett's Harbor 278

American project against Kingston 279

General Brown's mistake as to the Government's purpose 280

Carries his army to the Niagara frontier 281

Chauncey's fears for Sackett's Harbor 281

Wilkinson's expedition to La Colle.



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