A B C D E F
G H I J K L M 

Total read books on site:
more than 10 000

You can read its for free!


Text on one page: Few Medium Many
Salisbury Tuckerman.

THE QUARTERDECK OF THE _Java_ BEFORE THE SURRENDER Page 6
From a drawing by Henry Reuterdahl.

THE NEW CARRYING TRADE Page 18
From a drawing by Stanley M. Arthurs.

THE RETREAT OF THE BRITISH FROM SACKETT'S HARBOR Page 44
From a drawing by Henry Reuterdahl.

THE FLEETS OF CHAUNCEY AND YEO MANOEUVRING ON LAKE CHAMPLAIN Page 52
From a drawing by Carlton T. Chapman.

CAPTAIN ISAAC CHAUNCEY Page 60
From the engraving by D. Edwin, after the painting by
J. Woods.

CAPTAIN SIR JAMES LUCAS YEO Page 60
From the engraving by H.R. Cook, after the painting by
A. Buck.

CAPTAIN OLIVER HAZARD PERRY Page 66
From the painting by Gilbert Stuart, in the possession
of O.H. Perry, Esq.

PERRY RECEIVING THE SURRENDER OF THE BRITISH AT THE BATTLE
OF LAKE ERIE Page 94
From a drawing by Henry Reuterdahl.

CAPTAIN PHILIP BOWES VERE BROKE Page 134
From the mezzotint by Charles Turner, after the
painting by Samuel Lane, in the possession of Lady
Saumarez.

THE CAPTURE OF THE _Chesapeake_ BY THE _Shannon_--THE
STRUGGLE ON THE QUARTERDECK Page 138
From a drawing by Henry Reuterdahl.

CAPTAIN JAMES LAWRENCE Page 140
From the painting by Gilbert Stuart, in the possession
of the New Jersey Historical Society, Newark, N.J.

THE BURNING OF A PRIVATEER PRIZE Page 222
From a drawing by Henry Reuterdahl.

CAPTAIN DAVID PORTER Page 244
From the painting by Charles Wilson Peale, in
Independence Hall, Philadelphia.

CAPTAIN THOMAS MACDONOUGH Page 360
From the painting by Gilbert Stuart, in the Century
Club, New York, by permission of the owner, Rodney
Macdonough, Esq.

THE BATTLE OF LAKE CHAMPLAIN Page 380
From a drawing by Henry Reuterdahl.




MAPS AND BATTLE PLANS.

VOLUME TWO.


Plan of Engagement between _Constitution_ and _Java_ Page 4

Plan of Engagement between _Hornet_ and _Peacock_ Page 8

Map of Niagara Peninsula Page 38

Surroundings of Sackett's Harbor Page 43

Plan of Chauncey's Engagement, August 10, 1813 Page 58

Plan of Erie Harbor, 1814 Page 72

Diagram of the Battle of Lake Erie, September 10, 1813 Page 82

Chauncey and Yeo, September 28, 1813 Page 108

_Chesapeake_ and _Shannon_ Page 136

Outline Map of Chesapeake Bay and Rivers Page 156

_Enterprise_ and _Boxer_ Page 188

_Argus_ and _Pelican_ Page 218

_Montague_, _Pelham_, and _Globe_ Page 228

_Chasseur_ and _St. Lawrence_ Page 238

_Wasp_ and _Reindeer_ Page 254

Sketch of the March of the British Army, under General Ross,
from the 19th to the 29th August, 1814 Page 344

Tracing from pencil sketch of Battle of Lake Champlain made
by Commodore Macdonough Page 368

Battle of Lake Champlain Page 377

The Landing of the British Army, its Encampments and
Fortifications on the Mississippi; Works they erected on
their Retreat; with the Encampments and Fortifications
of the American Army Page 392




Sea Power in its Relations to the War of 1812


THE WAR (_Continued_)


CHAPTER IX

THE WINTER OF 1812-1813--BAINBRIDGE'S SQUADRON: ACTIONS
BETWEEN "CONSTITUTION" AND "JAVA," "HORNET" AND
"PEACOCK"--INCREASING PRESSURE ON ATLANTIC COAST


The squadron under Commodore William Bainbridge, the third which
sailed from the United States in October, 1812, started nearly three
weeks after the joint departure of Rodgers and Decatur. It consisted
of the "Constitution" and sloop of war "Hornet," then in Boston, and
of the "Essex," the only 32-gun frigate in the navy, fitting for sea
in the Delaware. The original armament of the latter, from which she
derived her rate, had been changed to forty 32-pounder carronades and
six long twelves; total, forty-six guns. It is noticeable that this
battery, which ultimately contributed not merely to her capture, but
to her almost helplessness under the fire of an enemy able to maintain
his distance out of carronade range, was strongly objected to by
Captain Porter. On October 14 he applied to be transferred to the
"Adams," giving as reasons "my insuperable dislike to carronades, and
the bad sailing of the "Essex," which render her, in my opinion, the
worst frigate in the service."[1] The request was not granted, and
Porter sailed in command of the ship on October 28, the two other
vessels having left Boston on the 26th.

In order to facilitate a junction, Bainbridge had sent Porter full
details of his intended movements.[2] A summary of these will show his
views as to a well-planned commerce-destroying cruise. Starting about
October 25, he would steer first a course not differing greatly from
the general direction taken by Rodgers and Decatur, to the Cape Verde
Islands, where he would fill with water, and by November 27 sail for
the island Fernando de Noronha, two hundred and fifty miles south of
the Equator, and two hundred miles from the mainland of Brazil, then a
Portuguese colony, of which the island was a dependency. The trade
winds being fair for this passage, he hoped to leave there by December
15, and to cruise south along the Brazilian coast as far as Rio de
Janeiro, until January 15. In the outcome the meeting of the
"Constitution" with the "Java" cut short her proceedings at this
point; but Bainbridge had purposed to stay yet another month along the
Brazilian coast, between Rio and St. Catherine's, three hundred miles
south. Thence he would cross the South Atlantic to the neighborhood of
St. Helena, remaining just beyond sight of it, to intercept returning
British Indiamen, which frequently stopped there. Porter failed to
overtake the other vessels, on account of the bad sailing of the
"Essex." He arrived at Fernando de Noronha December 14, one day before
that fixed by Bainbridge as his last there; but the "Constitution" and
"Hornet" had already gone on to Bahia, on the Brazilian mainland,
seven hundred miles to the southwest, leaving a letter for him to
proceed off Cape Frio, sixty miles from the entrance of Rio. He
reached this rendezvous on the 25th, but saw nothing of Bainbridge,
who had been detained off Bahia by conditions there. The result was
that the "Essex" never found her consorts, and finally struck out a
career for herself, which belongs rather to a subsequent period of the
war. We therefore leave her spending her Christmas off Cape Frio.

The two other vessels had arrived off Bahia on December 13. Here was
lying a British sloop of war, the "Bonne Citoyenne," understood to
have on board a very large amount of specie for England. The American
vessels blockaded her for some days, and then Captain Lawrence
challenged her to single combat; Bainbridge acquiescing, and pledging
his honor that the "Constitution" should remain out of the way, or at
least not interfere. The British captain, properly enough, declined.
That his ship and her reported value were detaining two American
vessels from wider depredations was a reason more important than any
fighting-cock glory to be had from an arranged encounter on equal
terms, and should have sufficed him without expressing the doubt he
did as to Bainbridge's good faith.[3] On the 26th the Commodore,
leaving Lawrence alone to watch the British sloop, stood out to sea
with the "Constitution," cruising well off shore; and thus on the
29th, at 9 A.M., being then five miles south of the port and some
miles from land, discovered two strange sail, which were the British
frigate "Java," Captain Henry Lambert, going to Bahia for water, with
an American ship, prize to her.

Upon seeing the "Constitution" in the south-southwest, the British
captain shaped his course for her, directing the prize to enter the
harbor. Bainbridge, watching these movements, now tacked his ship,
and at 11.30 A.M. steered away southeast under all plain sail, to draw
the enemy well away from neutral waters; the Portuguese authorities
having shown some sensitiveness on that score. The "Java" followed,
running full ten miles an hour, a great speed in those days, and
gaining rapidly. At 1.30, being now as far off shore as desired,
Bainbridge went about and stood toward the enemy, who kept away with a
view to rake, which the "Constitution" avoided by the usual means of
wearing, resuming her course southeast, but under canvas much reduced.
At 2.10 the "Java," having closed to a half mile, the "Constitution"
fired one gun ahead of her; whereupon the British ship hoisted her
colors, and the American then fired two broadsides. The "Java" now
took up a position to windward of the "Constitution," on her port
side, a little forward (2.10); "within pistol-shot," according to the
minutes submitted by the officer who succeeded to the command; "much
further than I wished," by Bainbridge's journal. It is not possible
entirely to reconcile the pretty full details of further movements
given by each;[4] but it may be said, generally, that this battle was
not mainly an artillery duel, like those of the "Constitution" and
"Guerrière," the "Wasp" and "Frolic," nor yet one in which a principal
manoeuvre, by its decisive effect upon the use of artillery, played
the determining part, as was the case with the "United States" and
"Macedonian." Here it was a combination of the two factors, a
succession of evolutions resembling the changes of position, the
retreats and advances, of a fencing or boxing match, in which the
opponents work round the ring; accompanied by a continual play of
the guns, answering to the thrusts and blows of individual
encounter.



Pages: | Prev | | 1 | | 2 | | 3 | | 4 | | 5 | | 6 | | 7 | | 8 | | 9 | | 10 | | 11 | | 12 | | 13 | | 14 | | 15 | | 16 | | 17 | | 18 | | 19 | | 20 | | 21 | | 22 | | 23 | | 24 | | 25 | | 26 | | 27 | | 28 | | 29 | | 30 | | 31 | | 32 | | 33 | | 34 | | 35 | | 36 | | 37 | | 38 | | 39 | | 40 | | 41 | | 42 | | 43 | | 44 | | 45 | | 46 | | 47 | | 48 | | 49 | | 50 | | 51 | | 52 | | 53 | | 54 | | 55 | | 56 | | 57 | | 58 | | 59 | | 60 | | 61 | | 62 | | 63 | | 64 | | 65 | | 66 | | 67 | | 68 | | 69 | | 70 | | 71 | | 72 | | 73 | | 74 | | 75 | | 76 | | 77 | | 78 | | 79 | | 80 | | 81 | | 82 | | 83 | | 84 | | 85 | | 86 | | 87 | | 88 | | 89 | | 90 | | 91 | | 92 | | 93 | | 94 | | 95 | | 96 | | Next |

N O P Q R S T
U V W X Y Z 

Your last read book:

You dont read books at this site.