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188;
killed in the action, 189.


"_Caledonia._" British armed brig on lakes.
Aids at capture of Mackinac, i. 341;
captured by Lieutenant Elliott, 355;
takes part as American in battle of Lake Erie, ii. 81;
lost, 327.

_Calhoun, John C._ Member of American Congress.
Confidence concerning the conquest of Canada, i. 303.

_Campbell, Hugh G._ Captain, U.S.N., commanding Georgia coast district.
Reports on coast conditions, ii. 185, 186, 195, 196, 197, 198.

_Canada._
Expected by British writers to take the place of the United States in
supplying West Indies, i. 45, 48;
unable to do so, 64, 86;
benefited, however, by enforcement of navigation laws against the
United States, 78, 79;
propriety of invasion of by the United States, in 1812, considered,
292-294;
object of invasion of, defined by Monroe, 293;
how regarded in England, ii. 356.

_Canning, George._ British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs.
Takes office, i. 134;
statement as to the British right of impressment from foreign merchant
vessels, 115;
refusal to re-open treaty negotiations with Monroe and Pinkney, 135;
characteristics of his letters, 154;
negotiations with Monroe, concerning the "Chesapeake" affair, 156-168;
instructions to Erskine, for proposals to United States, 215-219;
Erskine's action disavowed by, and Jackson sent in place, 221;
misquotation of, by Robert Smith, American Secretary of State, 226, 227;
duel with Castlereagh, 229;
succeeded in office by Lord Wellesley, 229.

_Carden, John S._ Captain, R.N.
Commands "Macedonian" captured by "United States," i. 416.

_Castlereagh, Lord._ British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs.
Duel with Canning, i. 229;
remains in office after Perceval's assassination, 273;
opinion on political movements in United States immediately before
war, 274;
concerning Napoleon's alleged decree of April 28, 1811, 276;
instructions to the peace commission at Ghent, 415-418;
quoted in connection with the peace negotiations, 410, 417, 418, 420,
428, 429.

_Chalmers, George._ British writer on political and economical subjects.
Quoted, i. 21, 26, 32, 36, 50, 68, 77 (note).

_Champagny, Duc de Cadore._ French Minister of Foreign Affairs.
Quoted in connection with Napoleon's Decrees, i. 174. 175, 181;
celebrated letter of, August 5, 1810, 237;
accepted by American Government as a valid revocation of the
Decrees, 238;
discussion of, 239-242;
rejected as a revocation by Great Britain, 242.

_Champlain, Lake._
Natural highway to Canada, i. 309;
neglected by American Government in 1812, i. 351, 359; ii. 30, 357;
not under Chauncey's command, i. 361;
events on, 1812 and 1813, ii. 357-360;
Sir George Prevost's expedition, 362-381;
battle of Lake Champlain, 377-381;
effects of battle on conditions of peace, 382 (see also 99-101).

_Chauncey, Isaac._ Captain, U.S.N.
Ordered to command on Lakes Erie and Ontario, i. 354, 361;
early measures of preparation, 362-364;
cruises in 1812, 364, 365;
lays up for the winter, 366;
preparations on Lake Erie, 374-376;
Commander Perry ordered as second to, 376;
effects of energy of, ii. 28;
first plan of campaign, 1813, 30;
second plan, 33;
comment upon, 34;
expedition against York, 36;
operations about Niagara peninsula, 37-41;
impression produced on, by attack on Sackett's Harbor, 45;
naval campaign of, 1813, July 21-September 28, 51-60, 106-109;
engagements with British squadron, August 10, 56-59;
September 11, 60;
September 28, 106;
professional characteristics shown, 28, 35, 40, 45, 52, 56, 60, 61,
63, 65, 95, 108, 109, 110, 117, 294, 298-302, 305-306, 316, 323;
recommendations for campaign of 1814, 122;
singular inaction of, in June and July, 1814, 298-300;
controversy with General Brown, 300-302;
correspondence of Department with, 300;
Decatur ordered to relieve, 300;
subsequent movements of, 314-316, 323.

"_Cherub._" British sloop of war.
Takes part in attack on "Essex," ii. 247-252.

_Chesapeake Bay._ Blockade of, ii. 9;
operations in, 1813, 16, 156-158, 160-169;
singular contraband trade in, 1813, 170-175;
military exposure of, 159, 178, 202;
operations in, 1814, 336-351.

"_Chesapeake._" American frigate.
Attack upon by British ship of war "Leopard," i. 3, 134, 155;
negotiations concerning the affair, 156-170, 222, 228, 251;
settlement of, 255;
cruise of, in 1813, ii. 13;
action with, and capture by, the "Shannon," 132-147.

_Cheves, Langdon._ Member of American Congress.
Report recommending increase of navy, i. 260-263.

_Clay, Henry._ Member of American Congress.
Favors increase of navy, i. 260;
expects rapid conquest of Canada, 304;
calculations on Bonaparte's success in Russia, 390;
appointed peace commissioner at Ghent, ii. 413.

_Cochrane, Sir Alexander._ Vice-Admiral, R.N.
Appointed commander-in-chief on the American station, in succession
to Warren, ii. 330, 382 (note);
his retaliatory order for the burning of Newark, 334-335;
operations in the Chesapeake, 1814, 340-351;
plans for action against New Orleans, 383-388;
operations against New Orleans and Mobile, 388-396;
capture of Fort Bowyer, Mobile, 397.

_Cockburn, George._ Rear Admiral, R.N.
Second in command to Warren, ii. 155;
expedition to the upper Chesapeake, 1813, 157, 158;
in the Potomac, 168;
American vessel licensed by, 175;
attack at Ocracoke inlet, N.C., 204;
at capture of Washington, 348, 349;
expedition against Cumberland Island, Georgia, 388.

_Colonies._
Relations of colonies to mother countries in respect to trade, during
the period of American dependence, i. 24-28;
Montesquieu's phrase, 27;
Bryan Edwards' statement, 28;
John Adams' observation, 28;
supposed effect of, upon the carrying trade, 25, 26, 49, 50, 65;
and naval power, 51, 52;
the _entrepôt_ monopoly, derived from colonial system, 12, 16, 24;
renewed by the Orders in Council of 1807, 27;
characteristics of the West India group of colonies, 32, 33,
and of those now the United States, 34, 35;
their mutual relations, as colonies, 31, 35, 36;
the imperial inter-action of the mother country, and the two groups
of colonies, 52, 55, 63;
British hopes of reinstating this condition, after the Revolution, by
substituting Canada and Nova Scotia for the lost continental
colonies, 48, 64;
effect of colonial traditions upon events subsequent to American
independence, 65-70, 75-79;
tendency to reimpose colonial restriction upon the new states, a
cause of War of 1812, 40, 87, 88, 90-92, 177, 178.

_Committee_, of the Privy Council of Great Britain, 1791.
Report on the conditions of British commerce since the independence
of the United States, and the probable effect of American
legislation for the protection of American carrying trade, i. 77-85.

"_Constellation._" American frigate.
Hopelessly blockaded in Norfolk throughout the war, ii. 11, 162, 178.

"_Constitution._" American frigate.
Chased by British squadron, i. 328;
captures the "Guerrière," i. 330-335;
the "Java," ii. 3-7;
the "Cyane" and "Levant," 404-406.

_Continental._
Distinctive significance of the term, applied to the colonial system
of Great Britain in North America, i. 32;
Bermuda and the Bahamas reckoned officially among the continental
colonies, 31 (note).

_Continental System_ of Napoleon.
Extraordinary political character of, defined, i. 152, 153, 174;
co-operation of the United States desired in, 173;
and practically given by the United States, 176.

_Cooper, James Fenimore._ American naval historian.
Quoted, ii. 83-87, 101 (note), 108, 110, 135, 138, 188 (note).

_Craney Island_, near Norfolk.
Attack on by the British, in 1813, ii. 164-166.

_Croghan, George._ Major, U.S. Army.
Gallant defence of Fort Stephenson, 1813, ii. 73;
commands troops in the abortive military and naval expedition against
Michilimackinac, 1814, 324.

"_Cyane._" British ship of war.
Captured by the "Constitution," ii. 404-406.


_Dacres, James R._ Captain, R.N., commanding "Guerrière."
His defence before the Court Martial, i. 334.

_Dearborn, Henry._ American general.
Appointed, i. 337;
age, 337;
characterized by a British officer, 351;
negotiates a suspension of hostilities, which is disapproved, 352;
inactivity, 359; ii. 39, 47, 48;
apprehensions, ii. 32, 47;
relieved from command, 48.

_Decatur, Stephen._ Captain, U.S.N.
Commands a squadron, i. 314;
plan for employment of the navy in war, 317, 415;
accompanies John Rodgers on the first cruise of the war, 322-324;
sails on an independent cruise, 407, 408, 415;
action between the "United States" and "Macedonian," 416;
in 1813 unable to get to sea with a squadron, ii. 25, 148,
which is blocked in New London for the rest of the war, 149;
ordered to relieve Chauncey on the lakes, 300;
appointed to command frigate "President," 397;
action with "Endymion," 399;
surrenders to British squadron, 400-403.

_Decrees, Napoleon's._
Berlin, November 21, 1806, i. 141-148;
its design, and counter design of Great Britain, 149;
rigid enforcement of, 172;
Milan, December 17, 1807, 180, 189, (note), 205;
Bayonne, April 17, 1808, 189, 203;
Rambouillet, March 23, 1810, 235, 236;
alleged revocation of, by Champagny's letter of August 5, 1810,
237-242;
spurious Decree of April 28, 1811, 282.

_Delaware Bay._
Blockade of, and operations in, ii. 9, 16, 158-160.

_Dent, John H._ Captain, U.S.N., commanding South Carolina coast district.
Reports on coast conditions, ii. 15, 196, 203 (and note), 204.

"_Detroit._" British armed brig (late American "Adams").
Captured by Elliott on Lake Erie, i. 354-356.

"_Detroit._"
British flagship at battle of Lake Erie, ii. 73, 77;
condition when surrendered, 94.

_Direct Trade._
To foreign countries, forbidden to colonies, i.



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