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24-26;
common practice of all maritime states, 27, 28;
stress laid upon this idea in Great Britain, 75, 76, 83, 84, 96;
question of what constitutes, 100;
decision adverse to American navigation, by Sir William Scott, 101;
practical effect of the decision, 102.

_Downie, George._ Commander, R.N.
Commands the British squadron on Lake Champlain, ii. 372-375;
his plan of action, 377;
killed in the battle, 378.

_Drummond, Sir Gordon._
Civil and military Governor of Upper Canada, ii. 120;
his plans for the winter of 1813-1814, 276-278;
his appreciations of the strength of Kingston and of Sackett's
Harbor, 280;
dependence upon the control of the water, i. 301, 302; ii. 290,
302-306, 308-309, 314-317;
comments on American troops, 295;
campaign of 1814--arrival at York, 307;
plan of action, 308-309;
battle of Lundy's Lane, 310-312;
assault on Fort Erie, 314;
American sortie against, 316;
line of the "Chippewa," 317, 321-322.


_Elliott, Jesse D._ Commander U.S.N.
Serves under Chauncey on the lake, i. 354, 363;
captures British brigs "Caledonia" and "Detroit," 355;
selects Black Rock for naval station on Lake Erie, 374;
ordered as second to Perry, on Lake Erie, ii. 74;
conduct in the battle, 78-80, 83-88, 96;
in command on Lake Erie, after Perry's detachment, 104.

_Embargo_, of 1808.
Approved by President Jefferson, December 22, 1807, i. 182;
its aims, 183-186;
its effects in the United States, 186-207;
upon West Indies, 196-198;
upon Canada and Nova Scotia, 198;
upon Great Britain, 200, 201;
Act for better Enforcement, January 9, 1809, 208;
repeal of, 214;
Embargo of 1812, for ninety days, 263.

"_Endymion._" British frigate.
Her action with the "President," ii. 398-407.

"_Enterprise._"
American brig of war, ii. 186, 187, 231-233;
capture of British brig "Boxer," 188.

_Entrepôt._
Significance of the term, and advantage to commerce, i. 12;
conspicuous part in colonial regulation, 16, 24-26;
underlying relation to Orders in Council of 1807, 27.

"_Enumerated_" articles.
Definition of, i. 24.

"_Epervier._" British sloop of war.
Captured by the "Peacock," ii. 258-261.

_Erie, Town of._
Selected by Chauncey for naval station on Lake Erie, i. 375;
advantages and drawbacks, 375;
British designs against, ii. 69.

_Erskine, David M._ British Minister to Washington.
Exceeds his instructions in negotiating, i. 216-218;
disavowed and recalled, 219;
succeeded by Francis J. Jackson, 221.

"_Essex._" American frigate.
Captain Porter's dissatisfaction with, ii. 1, 2;
sails, but fails to join Bainbridge's squadron, 3;
goes to the Pacific, 244;
cruise in the Pacific, 246;
action with, and capture by, British ships "Phoebe" and "Cherub,"
249-252.

_Europe._
Conditions in, as affecting war in America, i. 378-385, 389-390, 401,
410; ii. 9-11, 126, 210-212, 266 (and note), 330, 340, 355-356,
362-363, 385-387;
effect upon the peace negotiations, ii. 411, 414, 415, 420, 423-424,
427-431, 434.


_Fox, Charles James._ British Secretary for Foreign Affairs.
Takes office, i. 104;
negotiations with Monroe concerning "direct" trade, 105;
connection with blockade of May 16, 1806, 108;
illness and death, 128-131.

"_Frolic._" British brig of war.
Captured by "Wasp," 412-415;
recaptured, 415.

"_Frolic._" American sloop of war, named after above.
Captured by "Orpheus," ii. 269 (note), 244 (note).


_Gallattin, Albert._ American Secretary of the Treasury.
Concerning the Embargo of 1808, i. 194, 196, 202, 208;
concerning Non-Intercourse Act, 217;
conversation with Turreau, concerning Erskine's proposition, 230;
report on the finances, immediately before the war, 281;
opinion as to privateering, 396;
observations as to feeling in England, 1814, ii. 332, 415;
appointed peace commissioner, 412;
opinion as to the effect of the war upon the nation, 435-436.

_Gambier, Lord._ British admiral.
Peace commissioner at Ghent, 413.

_Gaston, William._ Representative from North Carolina.
Speech on allegiance and impressment, i. 6-8, 123, 137.

_Ghent._
Negotiations at, and Treaty of, ii. 413-435;
names of commissioners, 412, 413;
terms of, 431-433;
signature and ratification of, 434-435.

_Goulburn, Henry._
British peace commissioner at Ghent, ii. 413.

_Grenville, Lord._ British Secretary for Foreign Affairs.
Correspondence with Rufus King concerning impressment, i. 117-118,
120-121.

"_Guerrière._" British frigate.
Captured by the "Constitution," i. 330-335.

"_Guerrière._" American, named after above.
Command declined by Decatur for reasons, i. 422; ii. 398.

_Gunboats._
Jefferson's sole naval dependence on, i. 187; ii. 213-214;
nautical disqualifications of, 196, 291, 296;
extravagant expense of, 260, 262; ii. 154;
proclaim a merely defensive policy, 296;
demoralizing effect upon officers and crews, ii. 154, 155;
committed in war to officers not of regular navy, 154, 336-337;
general uselessness in war, 154, 159, 160, 161, 163, 164, 179, 195, 198;
gallant defence of the "Asp," 168, and of the Lake Borgne flotilla,
389-390.


_Halifax._
Benefited by American embargo and War of 1812, i. 198; ii. 21, 23;
importance relative to trade routes, and cruising, i. 392, 394.

_Hampton._ Town in Virginia.
Local military importance of, ii. 160, 162;
attack on, 167.

_Hampton, Wade._ American general.
Commands Lake Champlain district, 1813, ii. 111;
to co-operate with Wilkinson, 111;
fails to join, and retires on Plattsburg, 115, 116.

_Harrison, William H._ American general.
Succeeds to Hull's command, i. 367;
plans of campaign, 368, 369,
overthrown by Winchester's disaster at Frenchtown, 370;
remains on defensive awaiting naval control of lakes, 371;
resumes operations after Perry's victory, ii. 102;
wins battle of the Thames, 103;
transferred to Niagara, 104,
and thence to Sackett's Harbor, 117.

_Harvey, J._ Lieutenant-colonel, British army.
Suggests and conducts decisive attack at Stony Creek, ii. 46-48.
Quoted, 102, 308.

_Hillyar, James._ Captain, R.N.
Commands frigate "Phoebe," ii. 246;
in company with "Cherub" captures U.S.S. "Essex," 247-252.

"_Hornet._" American sloop of war.
Captures the "Peacock," ii. 8;
sails with Decatur's squadron, 1813, and driven into New London,
148, 149;
escapes thence to New York, sails again, 397,
and captures, "Penguin," 406-408.

_Hull, Isaac._ Captain, U.S.N.
Commands "Constitution," i. 328;
chased by British squadron, 329;
sails from Boston on a cruise, 329;
captures "Guerrière," 330-335;
commanding Portsmouth yard, reports on coastwise conditions, ii. 186,
187, 192, 198.

_Hull, William._ American general.
Appointed brigadier general, i. 337;
his letter setting forth military conditions prior to war, 339;
his campaign, 340-346, and surrender, 347.


_Impressment._
A principal cause of War of 1812, i. 2;
statement of the British claim, 3;
counter-claim of American Government, 4, 120;
American people not unanimous in support, 5, 116;
opinions of Morris, Gaston, and Strong, 6-8;
not mentioned in Jay's instructions, 1794, 88;
made pre-eminent in those to Monroe and Pinkney, 1806, 114;
historical summary of the controversy, to 1806, 114-133;
treaty of December 31, 1806, does not provide for, satisfactorily, 133;
rejected therefore by Jefferson, 133;
a real cause of the war, though so denied by some, 136-138;
American demand revived in connection with the "Chesapeake" affair, 161;
Great Britain refuses to mingle the two questions, 165;
numbers of American seamen alleged to have been impressed, 128, 300
(and note);
demand renewed, coincident with a proposal looking to peace after the
declaration of war, ii. 409;
Great Britain again refuses, 410;
stated as a _sine quâ non_ in reply to British propositions made
through Admiral Warren, i. 391;
embodied in instructions to peace commissioners, ii. 413-414;
again refused by Great Britain, 416;
abandoned by the American Government, in consequence of the pressure
of the war, ii. 266 (and note), 414, 432.

_Indians_, American.
Estimated importance of, in consideration of war, i. 305-307, 338,
339; ii. 67, 293, 421;
effect upon Hull, in surrendering, 349;
instability of, 345, 346; ii. 73, 75, 99, 103, 280, 421;
desire of British officials to secure them in their possessions at
the peace, ii. 99, 100 (note), 421;
the consequent effect upon the peace negotiations, 416-423;
not included, as parties to the treaty, 432.

_Izard, George._ American general.
Relieves Wilkinson in command of Champlain district, ii. 283;
action first intended for, 292;
his reports of conditions, 318-319, 364;
his preparations about Plattsburg, 319, 370;
ordered to proceed to Brown's assistance on Niagara frontier, 319-320;
his march thither, 320-321, 365;
proceedings about Niagara, 321-323;
blows up Fort Erie and retreats to New York side, 323.


_Jackson, Andrew._ American general.
Takes Pensacola, ii. 388;
goes to New Orleans, 388;
operations about New Orleans, 391-396.

_Jackson, Francis J._ British Minister to the United States.
Appointed, with special powers, i. 221;
negotiations at Washington, 221-225;
American Government declines further intercourse with, 225;
discussion of the correspondence, 226-228;
British Government declines to censure, 228, 231.

_James, William._ British naval historian.
Quoted, i. 325, 327, 414, 415; ii. 6, 8, 54, 58, 80 (note), 132, 141
(and note), 142, 143, 160 (note), 162, 165 (note), 257, 258 (note),
260, 381, 395 (note), 396 (note).

"_Java._" British frigate.
Captured by "Constitution," ii. 3-7.

_Jay, John._ Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court.
Epochal significance of treaty with Great Britain negotiated by, i. 43;
appointed special envoy, 88;
occasion for the mission, 89, 90;
character of the negotiation, 93-95;
the treaty a temporary arrangement, 95;
ratified, with an omission, 96.

_Jefferson, Thomas._
American Secretary of State.
Opinion as to the importance of navigation to national defence, i.



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