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43;
appointed special envoy, 88;
occasion for the mission, 89, 90;
character of the negotiation, 93-95;
the treaty a temporary arrangement, 95;
ratified, with an omission, 96.

_Jefferson, Thomas._
American Secretary of State.
Opinion as to the importance of navigation to national defence, i. 52;
unflattering opinion of British policy, 70;
favors coercive retaliation in matters of commerce and navigation, 71;
principle as to impressment enunciated by, 120.
President of the United States.
Broad principle as to impressment asserted by, i. 4;
expectations of commercial concessions from Great Britain, 1804, 100;
aversion to military and naval preparations, 106, 138, 187, 280, 291,
297, 300, 336; ii. 213-214;
reliance upon commercial coercion, 107;
refuses approval of treaty of December 31, 1806, because without
stipulation against impressment, 133;
consistency of position in regard to impressment, 136-138;
action in the "Chesapeake" affair, 160-162;
endeavors to utilize it to obtain relinquishment of impressment, 164;
recommends a general embargo, 181;
expectations of, from the embargo, 183 (and note);
dislike to the carrying trade, 187,
and to Great Britain, 188-190;
gunboat policy of, 187, 260, 262; ii. 213-214;
embarrassment in executing embargo, i. 194;
tenacious adherence to the embargo policy, 202;
views as to American neutral waters, 291.
After leaving office.
Opinion as to cause of Erskine's arrangement, 1809, i. 231;
on Bonaparte's policy, 239;
favors keeping navy under cover during war, 280;
expectations as to easy conquest of Canada, 291.

_Jones, Jacob._ Commander, U.S.N., commanding "Wasp."
Captures "Frolic," i. 411-415;
taken by British seventy-four, 415;
commands frigate "Macedonian" (as captain), ii. 25;
expectations of escape, deceived, 25;
sails with Decatur, 148, and blockaded in New London, 150.

_Jones, Thomas ap Catesby._ Lieutenant, U.S.N.
Commands gunboat flotilla in Lake Borgne and Mississippi Sound, ii. 389;
overpowered, wounded, and captured by superior enemy's force, 390.

_Jones, William._ Secretary of the Navy.
Commercial estimate of privateering by, i. 396;
judicious reply to Perry's request for detachment, ii. 67;
comments on the effects of gunboat service on naval officers, 154, 155;
stigmatizes American intercourse with enemy, and issues order to
prevent, 174;
recommends to Congress procurement of naval schooners for commerce
destroying, 270;
recommendation of Chauncey to Congress, 1813, 299;
anxious correspondence with Chauncey, 1814, 300;
naval force available for defence of Washington, stated by, 343.


_Keane, John._ British general.
In temporary command of the expedition against New Orleans, 391.

_King, Rufus._ American Minister to Great Britain.
Appointed, i. 120;
negotiations concerning impressment, 120-122, 124-127.

_Kingston_, Canada.
Strategic importance of, i. 305-308; ii. 30, 42, 59;
operations contemplated against, ii. 30-33, 104-106, 278-280, 319.


_Lakes, the Great._
Strategic importance of, in War of 1812, i. 300-303, 353, 356;
ii. 29, 46-48, 99-101, 102-104, 276-278, 285, 290-291, 298-300;
decisive positions upon, i. 304-308;
Hull's exposition of effect of naval predominance on, 339;
Madison's admission concerning, 350;
improved conditions on, through Chauncey's energy, 361-366;
control of, dependent on naval force, 371, 373; ii. 68-70, 73-75,
99-101, 300-308, 314-315;
minor naval events on, i. 354-356; ii. 324-328;
British demands concerning, in the negotiations for peace,
ii. 355-356, 419, 421, 422.

_Lambert, Henry._ Captain, R.N.
Commands "Java" when taken by the "Constitution," ii. 3;
mortally wounded in the action, 5.

_Lambert, Sir John._ British general.
Joins New Orleans expedition two days before the assault, ii. 385;
succeeds to command upon Pakenham's death, 394-397;
proceeds against and captures Fort Bowyer, in Mobile Bay, 397.

_Lawrence, James._ Captain, U.S.N.
Commands "Hornet" in Bainbridge's squadron, i. 407;
sails in company with "Constitution," ii. 2;
challenges "Bonne Citoyenne," 3;
sinks the "Peacock," 8;
returns to United States, 9;
ordered to command "Chesapeake," 131;
nature of his orders, 131-132;
action with, and captured by, "Shannon," 135-140;
mortally wounded, 137;
examination of his conduct, 140-145.

"_Levant._" British sloop of war.
Captured by "Constitution," ii. 404-406;
recaptured by British squadron, 406 (note).

_Lewis, Morgan._
American general, ii. 47;
temporarily succeeds Dearborn in command at Niagara, 50.

_Licenses._
British to American merchant vessels, i. 203-206;
for the supply of armies in Spanish Peninsula, i. 265, 409-412;
ii. 9, 15, 21, 170-175.

_Liverpool, Earl of._ Prime Minister of Great Britain.
Quotations from correspondence of, relative to the peace negotiations,
chap. xviii., ii. 409-434.


_Macdonough, Thomas._ Captain, U.S.N.
Commands flotilla on Lake Champlain, ii. 356;
operations prior to Prevost's invasion, 356-363;
preparations for battle, 367-371, 376-377, 380;
wins battle of Lake Champlain, 377-381;
effects of the victory, 381-382, 427, 430-431;
news of the victory received in London, 426.

"_Macedonian._" British frigate.
Captured by the United States, i. 416-422.

"_Macedonian._" American frigate (captured as above).
Unable to get to sea, ii. 25,
and blockaded in New London during the war, 148-150.

_Macomb, Alexander._ American general.
Left by Izard in command at Plattsburg, ii. 365;
operations before, and at, Plattsburg, 366-367;
opinions of, as to distance of Macdonough's squadron from the shore
batteries, 369.

_M'Clure, George._ American, general of N.Y. militia.
Left in command of Niagara frontier, ii. 118;
difficulties of situation of, 119;
retreats to American side of river, 120;
burns Canadian village of Newark, 120;
this action of, disavowed by the Government, 120.

_Madison, James._ Secretary of State, and President of the United States.
Close association of, with events leading to War of 1812, and summary
of its cause, i. 41;
characterization of, 106;
discussion of questions of blockade, 110, 111;
pronouncement on impressment, 114, 131, 132;
instructions to Monroe and Pinkney to reopen negotiations, 1807, 133;
narrow outlook of, 139;
opinion of the Berlin Decree, 142, 182;
upon the Rule of 1756, 152;
instructions to Monroe by, in the "Chesapeake" affair, 161, 241;
object of Jefferson's course in that affair, stated by, 164;
use of the affair, made by, 170;
explanation of the motive of the Embargo of 1808 by, 183;
relation of, to Non-Intercourse Act, 215;
misled (as President) in negotiations with Erskine, 216-218;
proclamation, renewing intercourse with Great Britain, 219;
annulled, 219;
negotiations with Jackson, Erskine's successor, 221-225;
declines further communication with Jackson, 225;
special supervision of this correspondence by, 226;
interpretation of British motive for Erskine's supposed concession, 230;
accepts Champagny's letter as an actual revocation of Napoleon's
Decrees, and so proclaims, 238, 254;
afterwards recognizes delicacy of situation thus created, 266;
non-intercourse with Great Britain revives, 248;
message of, to Congress in special session, November 4, 1811, 259;
recommends embargo, preparatory to war, 263;
identified with policy of peaceful coercion, 278, 378; ii. 26, 175-176;
sends war message to Congress, and approves declaration of war, i. 279;
assumes only his share of responsibility for the war, 393;
indignation of, at British sectional blockade of coast, 296; ii. 173;
selects Dearborn and Hull for general officers, i. 337;
failure of expectations as to Hull's expedition, admitted by, 339;
ingenuous surprise at capitulation of Michilimackinac, 341;
admits mistake of not securing naval command of lakes, 350;
military inefficiency of Government under, 360; ii. 26-27, 265;
insists on relinquishment of impressment as a preliminary to treating
for peace, i. 391,
but obtains also from Congress law excluding British-born seamen
from American ships, 392;
to prevent clandestine supply of enemy, recommends prohibition of all
export, ii. 173;
issues executive order to same end, 174;
denials of effectiveness of British blockade, 204;
decides to abandon demand for cessation of impressment as a condition
for peace, 266 (note);
comment on Armstrong's management of military operations, 282.

_Manners, William._
Commander, R.N., commanding "Reindeer," ii. 254;
skill and gallantry of, in action with "Wasp," 254-255;
killed in the action, 255.

_Maples, J.F._ Commander, R.N., commanding "Pelican."
Captures "Argus," ii. 217-219.

_Marshall, John._ American Secretary of State under President John Adams.
Summary of commercial injuries received from Great Britain, i. 97;
propositions to Great Britain concerning impressment, 121;
opinion concerning blockades, 146;
tendency of this opinion, if accepted, 148.
(Afterwards Chief Justice of Supreme Court.)

_Militia._
Jefferson's dependence upon, i. 52; ii. 213;
conduct of, American and Canadian, i. 344, 345, 346, 351, 357, 360;
ii. 26, 27, 42, 44, 70, 119-121, 157-158, 295, 312, 316, 337, 339,
343, 347-351, 354, 365, 366, (and note), 367, 391-396.

_Monroe, James._
American Minister to Great Britain, i. 104, 126;
reports conditions of American commerce in 1804 prosperous, 99, 100, 104,
but changed in 1805, 104;
consequent negotiations with Fox, 104-113;
Pinkney appointed as colleague to, for special negotiation, 113;
negotiations with British ministry on impressment, 128-132;
with Pinkney signs treaty of December 31, 1806, 133;
treaty rejected by Jefferson, and new negotiations ordered, 133;
"Chesapeake" affair intervenes, but British Government eventually
refuses to reopen, 135;
unlucky comment of, upon Rule of 1756, 151;
negotiations of, with Canning, concerning "Chesapeake" affair, 156-165;
returns to the United States, leaving Pinkney as minister, 135;
after return vindicates the rejected treaty, 169, 213;
proposes to Jefferson, in 1809, a special mission to France and Great
Britain, for which he offers himself, 212;
becomes Secretary of State, under President Madison, 254;
correspondence, while Secretary, quoted, 255, 293, 391; ii.



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