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265, 266,
411, 413, 414;
advanced views, for one of his party, concerning utility of a navy,
i. 280;
on project of keeping navy in port, in war, 106, 281;
statement regarding readiness for war, 393.
Secretary of War, ii. 323.

_Montreal._
Strategic importance of, i. 303-309.

_Mooers, Benjamin._ General, New York militia.
Vindicates the conduct of most part of the militia under his command,
ii. 366 (note).

_Morris, Charles_. Captain, U.S.N. (first lieutenant of the
"Constitution" in action with "Guerrière").
Commands frigate "Adams," in Potomac, ii. 162, 167;
services in Potomac, and at Annapolis, 169, 174-177;
difficulty in escaping British blockade, 170, 178;
first cruise of "Adams," 226, 261;
second cruise, strikes on Isle au Haut, takes refuge in Penobscot,
and burned to escape capture, 353-354.

_Morris, Gouverneur._ American statesman.
Opinion favorable to British right of impressment of British-born
seamen on high seas, i. 5-7;
opinion of the United States' ability to maintain a strong navy, 71;
in London, contends against impressment of Americans, 119.


_Napoleon, The Emperor._
Issues Berlin Decree, i. 112;
purpose, as defined by himself, 144;
objects of, as towards the United States, 149, 169, 173, 182, 235,
249, 268, 278;
scope of Berlin Decree, 152, 173, 176, 182, 253-254;
sole control of Continent by, 153, 174, 220, 221, 269;
vigorous application of Decree to American shipping, 172;
effects of his reverses in Spain, 191, 209;
Bayonne Decree of, 203;
tenor of Milan Decree of, 205;
Decree of Rambouillet, 235-236;
alleged revocation of decrees by, 237, 271, 272;
instances of arguments of, 240, 267;
effect of reverses in Russia upon the War of 1812, 389;
of downfall of, ii. 10, 123, 330.

_Navigation._
Connection between naval power and, 11, 49-52, 81;
distinction between commerce and, 11, 81.

_Navigation, Acts of._
The formulated expression of a national need, i. 9;
opinion of Adam Smith concerning, 9-10;
historical summary of, 13-19;
apparent effects of, 19;
British national conviction concerning, 21-24, 60-61;
relation of colonies to system of, 24-27;
endeavor to maintain system of, towards United States after
independence, 27, 29, 40, 41, 45-48, 103;
copied by French Convention, 28;
attitude of foreigners towards, 30;
progress of British colonies under, 31-39;
attitude of American colonists towards, 39;
Lord Sheffield's pamphlet upon, 46, 47, 49, 50, 57, 64, 65, 73 (and
note), 75;
inter-relations of British Empire protected by, 53-55, 63-64, 67;
working of, threatened by American independence, 56-58, 65;
modifications of, proposed by Pitt, but rejected by country, 58;
dependence of, upon West Indies, 65;
system of, continued by proclamation towards United States,
1783-1794, 67-70;
British commerce and shipping grow under this enforcement of, 76-84;
purpose of, offensive, in military sense, 79;
effect of French Revolution on, 87-88;
dependence of Rule of 1756 upon the system of, 90;
principle of Rule of 1756 leads up to molestation of American
navigation, and Orders in Council of 1807, 93, 98-104,
and so to war with United States, 136.

_Navy, American._
Gouverneur Morris' opinion of power of United States to maintain, i. 71;
opinion of John Quincy Adams, 186;
recommendation of Presidents Washington and John Adams, ii. 212, 213;
policy of President Jefferson, 213; i. 187, 280;
neglect of, during administrations of Jefferson and Madison, shown by
condition of, at outbreak of war, 257, 297, 300,
and stated by a committee of Congress, 1812, 260-262;
Madison's lukewarm mention, 259, 260;
Congress on approach of war refuses to increase, 263;
high professional merit of officers of, 279-280;
numbers of, as estimated by British admiralty, ii. 211;
total numbers of vessels in active employment, all told, from beginning
of war to its conclusion, twenty-two, 242.

_New Orleans._
For battle of, see _Actions, Land_.

"_New Orleans._"
Ship of the line, on the lakes, ii. 318 (note).

_Niagara, Peninsula of._
Strategic importance of, i. 338, 345-346, 352, 353; ii. 39-40, 51,
291, 293;
effect of climatic conditions of, i. 359.


_Orders in Council._
General definition of, i. 2 (note);
of 1807, cause of war with United States, 2;
_entrepôt_ motive for, 16, 27;
of June and November, 1793, 89, 92;
of January, 1794, 93;
relations of, to Rule of 1756, 93;
of January, 1798, motive of, 98,
and renewal in 1803, 99;
effect of these last upon "direct trade," 101;
of May, 1806, 108,
effect and purpose of, 109;
legitimacy of, denied by the United States, 110-112,
and by Napoleon, who upon it bases Berlin Decree, 112;
of January, 1807, and its effects, 150-152;
Of November, 1807, purport of, 177, 187;
resented by United States, 178;
delay in communicating to American Government, 179;
general plan of, that of blockades, 180;
illustrative instances of execution of, 180 (note), 204, 205 (notes);
known in United States before the passage of Embargo Act, 181;
conditional offer of British Government to withdraw, 215-218;
revocation of, by substitution of Order of April, 1809, 220;
American expectation of revocation, in consequence of Champagny's
letter, 238;
British Government declines to revoke, 243-245;
Pinkney's analysis, and condemnation, of, to Wellesley, 245-246;
Wellesley's reply, 246;
Wellesley's exposition of policy of, 253-254;
discontent in Great Britain with, 269;
order of April 12, 1812, promises revocation, conditional, 270;
British determination to maintain, otherwise, 273-276;
revocation of, June, 1812, 276,
to date from August 1, 1812, 277;
too late to secure peace with America, 278,
or to restore it, 391-392; ii. 9;
compensation for seizures under, refused in peace negotiations,
ii. 416, 432.


_Pakenham, Sir Edward._ British general.
Named to command New Orleans expedition after death of Ross, ii. 385;
instructions to, concerning conduct in Louisiana, 427;
arrival and operations, 392-396.

_Patterson, Daniel T._ Captain, U.S.N.
Commands in chief in waters of New Orleans, ii. 392-395.

"_Peacock._" British sloop of war.
Captured by "Hornet," ii. 7-9.

"_Peacock._" American sloop of war.
Captures "Epervier," ii. 258-261;
subsequent cruise of, 261-262;
sails again, January 20, 1815, 406.

_Pearson, Joseph._ Representative in Congress from North Carolina.
Speech on conditions of country, owing to the war, ii. 199.

"_Pelican._" British brig of war.
Captures American brig "Argus," ii. 217.

"_Penguin._" British sloop of war.
Captured by "Hornet," ii. 407.

_Perceval, Spencer._ Prime Minister of Great Britain.
Murder of, and consequent confusion in the Government, i. 273;
firm determination of, to maintain Orders in Council, and opinion
of American resistance, 274.

_Perry, Oliver H._ Captain, U.S.N.
Applies for, and ordered to, the lakes service, i. 376;
assigned by Chauncey to Lake Erie, and practical independence of
action there, 377;
conditions of force found, 377,
and merits of general action of, 378;
engaged at capture of Fort George, and transfers Black Rock flotilla
to Erie, ii. 41;
thenceforth remains on Lake Erie, 62,
but always under Chauncey, 63;
collision of interests between the two officers, 64;
altercation with Chauncey, 65;
applies to be detached, 66;
Navy Department refuses, 67;
exposed situation of Erie, and preparations for defence, during
equipment of squadron, 68-70;
blockaded by British squadron, 70;
seizes opportunity of its absence, to cross bar, 71;
proceedings prior to battle of Lake Erie, 74-75;
battle of Lake Erie, 76-94;
discussion of claim to credit of, 95-99;
consequences of success of, 99-101;
prompt subsequent action of, 102;
detached from lakes service, 104;
engaged in harassing retreat of British squadron down the Potomac, 350;
opinion as to qualities of smaller and larger vessels, 271;
detailed to command a squadron of schooners, against enemy's
commerce, 270-273.

"_Phoebe._" British frigate.
Sent to Pacific with two sloops of war to capture "Essex," 246;
with "Cherub" captures "Essex," 248-252.

_Pinkney, William._
Appointed colleague to Monroe, in London, for special negotiations,
i. 113;
course of negotiations, 127-133;
signs treaty of December 31, 1806, 133;
remains as minister, after Monroe's return, 135;
quoted in connection with mission, 146, 177, 215, 216, 218, 219, 230,
238, 241, 251;
party relations, 169;
early forwards a copy of Orders in Council of November 11, 1807,
179 (note);
letter of Secretary of State to, communicating dismissal of Jackson
by U.S. Government, 226-228;
communicates the same to the British Government, 230;
construes Champagny's letter to revoke French Decrees, and demands
recall of British Orders in Council, 238;
letter to British Secretary for Foreign Affairs, analyzing and
condemning system of Orders in Council, 245;
conditional instructions to, to present recall, 250;
dilatory course of Wellesley towards, 251;
presents recall, 252;
returns to the United States, 252;
no successor to, till after the war, 252.

_Pitt, William._ Prime Minister of Great Britain.
Popularity of, i. 1;
as Chancellor of Exchequer, 1783, introduces bill favorable to United
States, for regulating commerce, 58;
controversy over bill, 60;
measure then dropped, 67, 68;
concession becomes possible to, 87, 97;
return to power, in 1804, 100;
new measures of, due to popular discontents, 101-104;
remark to Gouverneur Morris, concerning impressment difficulties, 120;
death of, 104.

_Porter, David._ Captain, U.S.N.
Commands frigate "Essex," i. 407; ii. 1-3, 13;
cruise of "Essex," in Pacific, ii.



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