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He was the son of a clergyman and received a fair
education in the public schools, and became an instructor for a time in
an institution for the blind at Clinton, N.Y. He removed to Buffalo in
1855, and, having engaged in the study of law, soon became prominent at
the bar. He was appointed assistant district attorney in 1863, and in
1870 was elected sheriff of the county. His course gained the confidence
of the community and led to his election as mayor of Buffalo, in 1881,
though the city was naturally strongly Republican in politics.

Mr. Cleveland added to his popularity by his able administration and was
nominated for governor of the State in the autumn of the following year.
His success by the unprecedented majority of 192,854 attracted national
attention and led the Democrats to believe he was their most available
candidate for the presidency. His course as governor commended itself to
his friends, who were so numerous that, when his name was presented at
Chicago, he received 683 votes against 137 for all others.

It will be noted that Mr. Cleveland was the first Democratic President
since the opening of the war. He assumed his office with the best wishes
of the people, though it is worth noting in this place that the majority
by which he was elected was much less than a glance at the returns would
suggest. At a public reception of Mr. Blaine, during the canvass, a
clergyman referred to the Democratic party as that of "Rum, Romanism,
and Rebellion." This unfortunate expression drove away a number of votes
from Mr. Blaine, who was defeated in New York by a few hundreds only;
but they were sufficient to turn the thirty-six electoral votes to Mr.
Cleveland and secure his election by the majority already named.


COMPLETION OF THE WASHINGTON MONUMENT.

For years preceding the Civil War, and for a long time afterward, the
Washington monument was a source of reproach and jest among the people,
because so long a period was allowed to pass before its completion. The
corner-stone was laid July 4, 1848, at which time Robert C. Winthrop,
Speaker of the House of Representatives, delivered the address. The
occasion was made notable by the presence of Daniel Webster, Henry Clay,
John C. Calhoun, and President Polk. The memorial to the greatest
American orator that ever lived was allowed to stand uncompleted for
thirty-seven years, its formal dedication taking place February 21st
(the 22d fell on Sunday), 1885. The address of the venerable W.W.
Corcoran, first vice-president of the Washington Monument Society,
formed in 1833, was read by Dr. J.C. Welling, president of Columbia
University, and the ceremonies were of an interesting character. The
Masonic services were conducted by the Grand Lodge of the District of
Columbia, which used the gavel that Washington had employed in laying
the corner-stone of the national capitol, September 18, 1793, while the
Bible was the one upon which he took his vows when made a Mason. A
second Bible was the one upon which he was sworn into office, April 30,
1789, when inaugurated President of the United States. This relic is now
the property of St. John Lodge, No. 1, of New York City.

[Illustration: THE WASHINGTON MONUMENT, WASHINGTON, D.C.]

President Arthur's address was as follows:

"FELLOW-COUNTRYMEN: Before the dawn of the century whose eventful
years will soon have faded into the past--when death had but lately
robbed the republic of its most beloved and illustrious citizen--the
Congress of the United States pledged the faith of the nation that in
this city, bearing his honored name, and then, as now, the seat of
the general government, a monument should be erected 'to commemorate
the great events of his military and political life.'

"The stately column that stretches heavenward from the plain whereon
we stand bears witness to all who behold it that the covenant which
our fathers made their children have fulfilled. In the completion of
this great work of patriotic endeavor there is abundant cause for
national rejoicing; for while this structure shall endure it shall be
to all mankind a steadfast token of the affectionate and reverent
regard in which this people continue to hold the memory of
Washington. Well may he ever keep the foremost place in the hearts of
his countrymen; the faith that never faltered; the wisdom that was
broader and deeper than any learning taught in schools; the courage
that shrank from no peril and was dismayed by no defeat; the loyalty
that kept all selfish purposes subordinate to the demands of
patriotism and honor; the sagacity that displayed itself in camp and
cabinet alike; and, above all, that harmonious union of moral and
intellectual qualities which has never found its parallel among men;
these are the attributes of character which the intelligent thought
of this century ascribes to the grandest figure of the last.

"But other and more eloquent lips than mine will to-day rehearse to
you the story of his noble life and its glorious achievements. To
myself has been assigned a simpler and more formal duty, in
fulfillment of which I do now, as President of the United States and
in behalf of the people, receive this monument from the hands of the
builder, and declare it dedicated from this time forth to the
immortal name and memory of George Washington."

The ceremonies at the monument being completed, those within the capitol
followed. General Sheridan was in charge of the military, and the
oration of Robert C. Winthrop, who was kept away by illness, was read by
Governor Long. John W. Daniel, a leading soldier on the side of the
Confederacy during the Civil War and afterward a member of Congress from
Virginia, delivered a graphic sketch of Washington, and closed with the
eloquent peroration:

"Long live the republic of Washington! Respected by mankind, beloved
by all its sons, long may it be the asylum of the poor and oppressed
of all lands and religions--long may it be the citadel of that
liberty which writes beneath the eagle's folded wings: 'We will sell
to no man, we will deny to no man right and justice.'

"Long live the United States of America! Filled with the free,
magnanimous spirit, crowned by the wisdom, blessed by the moderation,
hovered over by the guardian angel of Washington's example, may they
ever be worthy in all things to be defended by the blood of the brave
who knew the rights of man--may they each be a column, and all
together, under the Constitution, a perpetual temple of peace,
unshadowed by a Csar's palace, at whose altar may freely commune all
who seek the union of liberty and brotherhood.

"Long live our country! Oh, long through the undying ages may it
stand, far removed in fact, as in space, from the Old World's feuds
and follies--solitary and alone in its grandeur and glory--itself the
immortal monument of him whom Providence commissioned to teach man
the power of truth, and to prove to the nations that their Redeemer
liveth."

It is worth noting that the Washington Monument with its 555 feet is the
highest in the world; the Cathedral at Cologne, 511 feet, is next; while
the height of the Great Pyramid is 486 feet. The cap-stone was put in
position December 6, 1884, and the whole cost of the monument was
$1,187,710, of which Congress furnished $900,000. An iron stairway of
900 steps and an elevator provide means for ascending the interior.


THE BARTHOLDI STATUE.

When a person enters New York harbor on his visit or return to the New
World, the most striking object upon which his eyes rest is the Statue
of Liberty. This represents the idea of Liberty enlightening the world,
as conceived by Frederick Auguste Bartholdi, the eminent French
sculptor. He began circulating his subscriptions for the work through
France in 1874. The popularity of the scheme is attested by the fact
that contributions were received from 180 cities, forty general
councils, a large number of chambers of commerce and of societies, and
more than 10,000 subscribers. On the 22d of February, 1877, Congress
voted to accept the gift, and set apart Bedlow's Island for the site.
The statue was finished in 1883, and displayed to public view for some
time in Paris. Its official presentation to the minister of the United
States took place July 4, 1884.

The French transport _Isere_, with the Liberty statue on board, arrived
at New York, June 24, 1885, and was saluted and welcomed by a hundred
different vessels. The dedication ceremonies, October 28, 1886, were
among the most impressive ever witnessed in the metropolis of our
country. Among those on the reviewing stand, near the Worth Monument,
were President Cleveland, General Sheridan, the members of the
President's cabinet, M. Bartholdi, M. de Lesseps, representative of the
diplomatic corps at Washington, and many distinguished American
citizens.

The following facts will give an idea of the size of this great statue:
the forefinger is more than eight feet long; the second joint is about
five feet in circumference; the finger-nail is a foot long, and the nose
nearly four feet; the head is fourteen and a half feet high, and can
accommodate forty persons, while the hollow torch will hold twelve
persons. The copper sheets which form the outside of the statue weigh
eighty-eight tons. From the base to the top of the torch is slightly
more than 150 feet, which is 305 feet above low-water mark.


DEATH OF GENERAL GRANT.

In no event of Cleveland's first administration was the public more
deeply concerned than in the death of General Grant, the foremost
defender of the Union. After his return from his triumphant journey
around the world, he engaged in business in the city of New York. The
soul of honor himself, it was hard for him to believe the dishonesty of
others; but he became the victim of unscrupulous persons, and lost not
only all his own savings but those of many of his friends. He did
everything in his power to make good his losses, but succeeded only to a
slight extent.



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