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The next morning vibrations
again shook the city, all coming from the southeast and passing off in a
northwesterly direction. The first warning was a deep, subterraneous
rumbling, then the earth quivered and heaved, and in a few seconds the
terrific wave had gone by. When night came again, 50,000 people--men,
women, and children--were in the streets, none daring to enter their
houses. They fled to the open squares to escape being crushed by the
falling buildings. Many believed the day of judgment had come and the
negroes were frenzied with terror.

Singular effects of the earthquake showed themselves. In some places,
the covers were hurled from the wells and were followed by geysers of
mud and water. Some wells were entirely emptied, but they soon refilled.
The shocks continued at varying intervals for several weeks, though none
was as violent as at first. In Charleston fully a hundred people were
killed and two-thirds of the city required rebuilding. While damage was
done at other points, none equaled that at Charleston.

The country was quick to respond to the needs of the smitten city.
Contributions were forwarded from every point as freely as when Chicago
was devastated by fire. Tents, provisions, and many thousands of dollars
were sent thither. Even Queen Victoria telegraphed her sympathy to
President Cleveland. One of the mitigations of such scourges is that
they seem to draw humanity closer into one general brotherhood.


An important work accomplished during the first administration of
Cleveland was the conquest and subjection of the Apaches of the
Southwest. These Indians are the most terrible red men that ever lived
anywhere. They are incredibly tough of frame, as merciless as tigers,
and capable of undergoing hardships and privations before which any
other people would succumb. They will travel for days without a mouthful
of food, will go for hour after hour through a climate that is like that
of Sahara without a drop of moisture, will climb precipitous mountains
as readily as a slight declivity, will lope across the burning deserts
all day without fatigue, or, if riding one of their wiry ponies, will
kill and eat a portion of them when hunger must be attended to, and then
continue their journey on foot.

If a party of Apache raiders are hard pressed by cavalry, they will
break up and continue their flight singly, meeting at some rendezvous
many miles away, after the discouraged troopers have abandoned pursuit.
They seem as impervious to the fiery heat of Arizona and New Mexico as
salamanders. Tonight they may burn a ranchman's home, massacre him and
all his family, and to-morrow morning will repeat the crime fifty miles

No men could have displayed more bravery and endurance in running down
the Apaches than the United States cavalry. The metal-work of their
weapons grew so hot that it would blister the bare hands, and for days
the thermometer marked one hundred and twenty degrees.

Captain Bourke, who understands these frightful red men thoroughly,
gives the following description of the Apache:

"Physically, he is perfect; he might be a trifle taller for artistic
effect, but his apparent 'squattiness' is due more to great girth of
chest than to diminutive stature. His muscles are hard as bone, and I
have seen one light a match on the sole of his foot. When Crook first
took the Apache in hand, he had few wants and cared for no luxuries. War
was his business, his life, and victory his dream. To attack a Mexican
camp or isolated village, and run off a herd of cattle, mules, or sheep,
he would gladly travel hundreds of miles, incurring every risk and
displaying a courage which would have been extolled in a historical
novel as having happened in a raid by Highlanders upon Scotchmen; but
when it was _your_ stock, or your friend's stock, it became quite a
different matter. He wore no clothing whatever save a narrow piece of
calico or buckskin about his loins, a helmet also of buckskin,
plentifully crested with the plumage of the wild turkey and eagle, and
long-legged moccasins, held to the waist by a string, and turned up at
the toes in a shield which protected him from stones and the 'cholla'
cactus. If he felt thirsty, he drank from the nearest brook; if there
was no brook near by he went without, and, putting a stone or a twig in
his mouth to induce a flow of saliva, journeyed on. When he desired to
communicate with friends at home, or to put himself in correspondence
with persons whose co-operation had been promised, he rubbed two sticks
together, and dense signal smoke rolled to the zenith, and was answered
from peaks twenty and thirty miles away. By nightfall, his bivouac was
pitched at a distance from water, generally on the flank of a rocky
mountain, along which no trail would be left, and up which no force of
cavalry could hope to ascend without making noise enough to wake the

This graphic picture of the dusky scourge of the Southwest will explain
the dread in which he was held by all who were compelled to live away
from the towns. When practicable, the ranchmen combined against the
Apaches, but, from the necessities of the case, they were powerless to
extirpate the pests. Unsuccessful attempts were made by the military
forces, but nothing definite was accomplished until General George Crook
took the work in hand.

Crook was an old Indian campaigner who thoroughly understood the nature
of the difficult task before him. His preparations being completed, he
ordered his different columns to converge, December 9, 1872, on Tonto
Basin, which was one of the principal strongholds of the Apaches in
Arizona. The section is inclosed by the Mogollen, the Mazatzal, and the
Sierra Ancha Mountains, and the timbered region is so elevated that
during the winter months it is covered with snow. Crook himself took
station at Camp Grant, one of the most unattractive posts in the

This officer having started on his campaign pushed it with untiring
energy. He had selected the best Indian fighters to be found anywhere,
and they pursued and rounded up the bucks with amazing skill and
persistency. As soon as they corralled a party of hostiles, they
impressed the best trailers and used them in running down the others.
The Indians were allowed no time to rest. When they had fled many miles,
and supposed their pursuers were left far out of sight, as had hitherto
been the case, they discovered them at their heels. Plunging into their
fastnesses in the mountains did not avail, for the white and the red
trailers could follow and did follow them wherever they took refuge.

The pursuing detachments frequently crossed one another's trails, often
met and kept within supporting distance. The danger which threatened the
Apaches was as present in the darkness as when the sun was shining. One
of the seemingly inaccessible strongholds was reached by the troopers
pushing the pursuit all through the night. As a proof of the skill of
the Apache trailers, it may be said they were often guided in the gloom
by the feeling of their feet, which told them when they were on the
trail of the enemy. Captain Bourke, whom we have quoted, was in command
of a detachment of the best Indian trailers and sharpshooters. He thus
describes the scene and incidents, when, after hours of stealthy pursuit
through the rough region, they came upon the hostiles, who believed
themselves beyond reach of the most persistent enemies of any race:


"Lieutenant William J. Ross, of the Twenty-first Infantry, was assigned
to lead the first detachment, which contained the best shots from among
the soldiers, packers, and scouts. The second detachment came under my
own orders. Our pioneer party slipped down the face of the precipice
without accident, following a trail from which an incautious step would
have caused them to be dashed to pieces; after a couple of hundred yards
this brought them face to face with the cave, and not two hundred feet
from it. In front of the cave was the party of raiders, just returned
from their successful trip of killing and robbing in the settlement near
Florence on the Gila River. They were dancing to keep themselves warm
and to express their joy over their safe return. Half a dozen or more of
the squaws had arisen from their slumbers and were bending over a fire
and hurriedly preparing refreshments for their victorious kinsmen. The
fitful gleam of the glowing flame gave a Macbethian tinge to the weird
scene, and brought into bold relief the grim outlines of the cliffs,
between whose steep walls, hundreds of feet below, growled the rushing
current of the swift Salado.

"The Indians, men and women, were in high good humor, and why should
they not be? Sheltered in the bosom of these grim precipices, only the
eagle, the hawk, the turkey buzzard, or the mountain sheep could venture
to intrude upon them. But hark! What is that noise? Can it be the breeze
of morning which sounds 'click, click?' You will know in one second
more, poor, deluded, red-skinned wretches, when the 'bang! boom!' of
rifles and carbines, reverberating like the roar of a cannon, from peak
to peak, shall lay six of your number dead in the dust.

"The cold, gray dawn of that chill December morning was sending its
first rays above the horizon and looking down upon one of the worst
bands of Apaches in Arizona, caught like wolves in a trap. They rejected
with scorn our summons to surrender, and defiantly shrieked that not one
of our party should escape from the caņon. We heard their death-song
chanted, and then out of the cave and over the great pile of rocks,
which protected the entrance like a parapet, swarmed the warriors. But
we outnumbered them three to one, and poured in lead by the bucketful.
The bullets, striking the mouth and roof of the cave, glanced among the
savages in rear of the parapet, and wounded some of the women and
children, whose wails filled the air.

"During the heaviest part of the firing, a little boy not more than four
years old, absolutely naked, ran out at the side of the parapet and
stood dumfounded between the two fires.

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