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In the fighting, the squaws were as
vicious as wildcats, and fought with as much effectiveness as the
warriors. A wounded officer was beaten to death by several of them
before he could be rescued. Finally, the Indians fled and joined the
malcontents, already assembled in the Bad Lands.

This affair made the outlook still darker. The Seventh Cavalry had just
reached camp on the morning of December 30th, when a courier dashed up
to Pine Ridge, with word that the Catholic Mission building was on fire
and the Indians were killing the teachers and pupils. The wearied
troopers galloped hurriedly thither, but found the burning building was
the day school, a mile nearer Pine Ridge. A strong force of Indians were
gathered beyond, and the Seventh attacked them. The Sioux were so
numerous that the cavalry were in great danger of being surrounded, when
a vigorous attack by the Ninth Cavalry (colored) on the rear of the
Indians scattered them.

Warriors continued to slip away from the agency and join the hostiles.
Their signal fires were seen burning at night, and recruits came all the
way from British America to help them. It was remarked at one time that
the only friendly Indians were the police, a few Cheyennes, and the
scouts, including a few Sioux chiefs, among whom American Horse was the
most conspicuous. He never wavered in his loyalty to the whites, and
boldly combated in argument his enemies, at the risk of being killed at
any moment by his infuriated countrymen.


THE ALARMING CLOUD DISSOLVED.

There were a number of skirmishes and considerable fighting, but General
Miles, who assumed charge of all the military movements, displayed
admirable tact. When the Sioux began slowly coming toward the agency, it
was under orders from him that not a gun should be fired nor a
demonstration made except to repel an attack or to check a break on the
part of the Indians. This course was followed, the troopers keeping at a
goodly distance behind the hostiles, who seemed more than once on the
point of wheeling about and assailing them, despite their promises to
come into the agency and surrender their arms.

The Sioux, however, kept their pledge, and, on the 15th of January,
1891, the immense cavalcade entered the agency. Everyone was amazed at
the strength displayed by the Indians, which was far greater than
supposed. In the procession were 732 lodges, and careful estimates made
the whole number 11,000, of whom 3,000 were warriors. Had these red men
broken loose and started upon the war trail, the consequences would have
been frightful.

While the weapons turned in by the Indians were only a few in number and
of poor quality, General Miles was satisfied the trouble was over and
issued a congratulatory address to those under his command. His opinion
of the situation proved correct, and the alarming war cloud that had
hung over the Northwest melted and dissolved. While there have been
slight troubles in different parts of the country since, none assumed a
serious character, and it is believed impossible that ever again the
peril of 1890-91 can threaten the country.


ADMISSION OF NEW STATES.

Several States were admitted to the Union during Harrison's
administration. The first were North and South Dakota, which became
States in November, 1889. The Dakotas originally formed part of the
Louisiana purchase. The capital was first established at Yankton in
March, 1862, but was removed to Bismarck in 1883. The two States
separated in 1889.

In November of the latter year Montana was admitted, and in July
following Idaho and Wyoming. Montana was a part of Idaho Territory until
May, 1864, when it was organized as a separate Territory. Idaho itself
was a part Of Oregon Territory until 1863, and, when first formed, was
made up of portions of Oregon, Washington, Utah, and Nebraska. The
boundaries were changed in 1864 and a part added to Montana. Wyoming
gained its name from the settlers who went thither from Wyoming Valley,
Pennsylvania. It first became a Territory in 1863.


PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION OF 1892.

The Republicans renominated President Harrison in 1892, with Whitelaw
Reid the candidate for Vice-President, while the Democrats put forward
ex-President Cleveland and Adlai E. Stevenson. The result of the
election was as follows:

Grover Cleveland and Adlai E. Stevenson, Democrats, 277 electoral votes;
Benjamin Harrison and Whitelaw Reid, Republicans, 144. Of the popular
vote, James B. Weaver and James G. Field, People's Party, received
1,041,028 votes; John Bidwell and James B. Cranfil, Prohibition,
264,133; and Simon Wing and Charles M. Matchett, Social Labor, 21,164
votes.

[Illustration: THE HERO OF THE STRIKE, COAL CREEK, TENN. In 1892 a
period of great labor agitation began, lasting for several years. One of
the most heroic figures of those troublous times is Colonel Anderson,
under a flag of truce, meeting the infuriated miners at Coal Creek.]




CHAPTER XXII.

ADMINISTRATION OF CLEVELAND (SECOND), 1893-1897.

Repeal of the Purchase Clause of the Sherman Bill--The World's Columbian
Exposition at Chicago--The Hawaiian Imbroglio--The Great Railroad Strike
of 1894--Coxey's Commonweal Army--Admission of Utah--Harnessing of
Niagara--Dispute with England Over Venezuela's Boundary--Presidential
Election of 1896.


REPEAL OF THE PURCHASE CLAUSE OF THE SHERMAN BILL.

[Illustration: HENRY MOORE TELLER. Senator from Colorado. The most
prominent among the "Silver Senators."]

Grover Cleveland was the first President of the United States who had an
interval between his two terms. His inauguration was succeeded by a
financial stringency, which appeared in the summer and autumn of 1893.
There seemed to be a weakening of general confidence in all parts of the
country, and much suffering followed, especially in the large cities,
greatly relieved, however, by the well-ordered system of charity. Many
people thought that one cause of the trouble was the Sherman Bill, which
provided for a large monthly coinage of silver. Congress was convened in
extraordinary session August 7th by the President, who recommended that
body to repeal the purchase clause of the Sherman act. Such a repeal was
promptly passed by the House, but met with strong opposition in the
Senate. There is less curb to debate in that branch of Congress, and the
senators from the silver States, like Colorado, Idaho and Nevada, where
the mining of silver is one of the most important industries, did what
they could to delay legislation. Some of the speeches were spun out for
days, with no other purpose than to discourage the friends of the
measure by delaying legislation. Finally, however, a vote was reached
October 30th, when the bill passed and was immediately signed by the
President.


THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION.

The most notable event of Cleveland's second administration was the
World's Columbian Exposition, held in Chicago. Properly the four
hundredth anniversary of the discovery of America should have taken
place in 1892, but the preparations were on so grand a scale that they
could not be completed in time.

[Illustration: Model of U.S. Man of War Built for exhibit at Worlds
Fair.]

The part of the government in this memorable celebration was opened by a
striking naval parade or review of the leading war-ships of the world.
They assembled at Hampton Roads, Virginia, coming from points of the
globe thousands of miles apart. Steaming northward to New York, the
review took place April 27, 1893. In addition to the thirty-five
war-ships, there were the three Columbian caravels sent by Spain and
presented to the United States. When ranged in two lines on the Hudson,
these ships extended for three miles, and represented, besides our own
country, Great Britain, France, Germany, Russia, Italy, Spain, Brazil,
Holland, and Argentina. The steel-clad yacht _Dolphin_ steamed between
these two lines, bearing President Cleveland and his cabinet, while each
ship as she came opposite thundered her salute. No conqueror of ancient
or modern times ever received so magnificent a tribute.

Chicago, having won the prize of the location of the World's Fair,
selected the site on the 2d of July, 1890. This covered nearly 700
acres of beautiful laid-out grounds and parks, extending from the point
nearest the city, two and a half miles, to the southern extremity of
Jackson Park. The site selected by the directors was the section known
as Jackson Park and the Midway Plaisance. The park has a frontage of one
and a half miles on Lake Michigan and contains 600 acres, while the
Midway Plaisance, connecting Jackson and Washington Parks, afforded
eighty-five acres more. It is 600 feet wide and a mile in length. Since
world's fairs have become a favorite among nations, the following
statistics will give a correct idea of the vastness of the one held in
Chicago, from May 1 to November 1, 1893:

London, 1857, 21-1/2 acres occupied; 17,000 exhibitors;
total receipts, $1,780,000

Paris, 1855, 24-1/2 " " 22,000 exhibitors;
total receipts, 6,441,200

London, 1862, 23-1/2 " " 28,633 exhibitors;
total receipts, 1,644,260

Paris, 1867, 37 " " 52,000 exhibitors;
total receipts, 2,103,675

Vienna, 1873, 280 " " 142,000 exhibitors;
total receipts, 6,971,832

Philadelphia, 1876, 236 " " 30,864 exhibitors;
total receipts, 3,813,724

Paris, 1878, 100 " " 40,366 exhibitors;
total receipts, 2,531,650

Paris, 1889, 173 " " 55,000 exhibitors;
total receipts, 8,300,000

Chicago, 1893, 645 " " 65,422 exhibitors;
total receipts, 33,290,065

The countries which made generous appropriations for exhibits were:
Argentine Republic, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa
Rica, Denmark, Danish West Indies, Ecuador, France, Germany, Great
Britain, Barbadoes, British Guiana, British Honduras, Canada, Cape
Colony, Ceylon, India, Jamaica, Leeward Islands, New South Wales, New
Zealand, Trinidad, Greece, Guatemala, Hawaii, Honduras, Haiti, Japan,
Liberia, Mexico, Morocco, Netherlands, Dutch Guiana, Dutch West Indies,
Nicaragua, Norway, Orange Free State, Paraguay, Peru, Russia, Salvador,
San Domingo, Spain, Cuba, Sweden, Uruguay.

All the States in the Union entered heartily into the scheme, their
total appropriations amounting to $6,000,000.



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