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The original plan called
for ten main buildings: Manufactures, Administration, Machinery,
Agriculture, Electricity, Mines, Transportation, Horticulture,
Fisheries, and the Venetian Village; but there were added: the Art
Galleries, the Woman's Building, the Forestry, Dairy, Stock, Pavilion,
Terminal Station, Music Hall, Peristyle, Casino, Choral,
Anthropological, and many others.


OPENING OF THE GROUNDS AND BUILDINGS.

The grounds and buildings were opened October 21, 1892, with appropriate
ceremonies by Vice-President Morton and other distinguished citizens.
The most important exhibits were as follows:

The Transportation Building displayed about everything that could be
possibly used in transportation, from the little baby-carriage to the
ponderous locomotive. The progress of ship-building from its infancy to
the present was shown, among the exhibits being an accurate model of the
_Santa Maria_, the principal ship of Columbus, which was wrecked in the
West Indies, on his first voyage. The Bethlehem steam hammer, the
largest in the world, was ninety-one feet high and weighed 125 tons.

Among the locomotives were the "Mississippi," built in England in 1834;
a model of Stephenson's "Rocket;" a steam carriage, used in France in
1759; and a model of Trevithick's locomotive of 1803. There were also
the first cable car built, the boat and steam fixtures made and
navigated by Captain John Stevens in 1804, and the "John Bull," used on
the Camden and Amboy Railroad, and which, it is claimed, is the oldest
locomotive in America.

[Illustration: MACHINERY HALL.]

The exhibit in the Mines and Mining Building were divided into 123
classes, including cement from Heidelberg, mosaics in Carlsbad stone,
French asphalt specimens, French work in gold, platinum, and aluminum,
silver and ores from nearly every part of the world, and ores from
different sections of our own country.

The Government Building was specially attractive, with its exhibits of
the several departments of the United States government. A case of
humming birds contained 133 varieties, and in another case were
represented 106 families of American birds. There were stuffed fowls,
flamingoes, nests, Rocky Mountain goats and sheep, armadilloes from
Texas, sea otters, American bisons, a Pacific walrus, 300 crocodiles of
the Nile, crocodile birds, fishes and reptiles, and an almost endless
display of coins and metals.

[Illustration]

The Department of Ethnology contained figures of Eskemos and specimens
of their industry, Canadian Indians, Indian wigwam, ancient pottery,
models of ruins found in Arizona, a brass lamp used at a feast 169 years
before Christ; scrolls of the law of Tarah, made in the tenth century in
Asia; silver spice-box of the time of Christ; phylacteries, used by the
Jews at morning prayers, except on Saturday; knife used by priests in
slaying animals for sacrifice.

[Illustration]

In the State Department thousands of people gazed with awe upon what was
believed to be the original Declaration of Independence as it came from
the hand of Thomas Jefferson. It was, however, only a close copy, since
the government under no circumstances will permit the original to leave
the archives at Washington. But among the original papers were the
petition of the United Colonies to George III., presented by Benjamin
Franklin in 1774; the original journal of the Continental Congress;
Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation; an autograph letter of George III.;
and various proclamations issued by Presidents, with their autographs
and letters, by Washington, Franklin, the Adamses, Jefferson, Madison,
Polk, Van Buren, Monroe, Lincoln, Grant, Arthur, and Hayes.


WONDERFUL HISTORIC RELICS.

[Illustration]

The most interesting historic papers were letters penned by Napoleon,
Alexander of Russia, and other foreign potentates, the Webster-Ashburton
treaty signed by Queen Victoria, and a shark's tooth sent as a treaty by
the king of Samoa. Precious relics were Washington's commission as
commander-in-chief of the colonial forces, his sword, his diary, and his
account books and army reports; the sash with which Lafayette bound up
his wound at Brandywine; the calumet pipe which Washington smoked when
seventeen years old; Benjamin Franklin's cane; the sword of General
Jackson; a waistcoat embroidered by Marie Antoinette; wampum made before
the discovery of America; camp service of pewter used by Washington
throughout the Revolution; Bible brought over by John Alden in the
_Mayflower_; and a piece of torch carried by "Old Put" (General Israel
Putnam) into the den of the wolf which he killed.

A section of one of the big trees of California was 20 feet in diameter
at the top and 26 feet at the base.

The dreadful sufferings of persons imprisoned for debt in England, which
led to the founding of Georgia, were recalled by a warrant for the
arrest and imprisonment of one of the unfortunates, issued in 1721.

There also were to be seen a page from the Plymouth records of 1620 and
1621; a land patent of 1628; the royal commission creating the common
pleas court of Massachusetts in 1696; a page from the horrible
witchcraft trials in Salem in 1692; a door-knocker brought to this
country in the _Mayflower_; and portraits of many historical persons.

In the War Department were shown a six-pounder bronze gun presented by
Lafayette to the colonial forces; the four-pounder gun that fired the
first shot in the Civil War; the rifled gun that fired the last shot;
cannon used in the Mexican War; cast-iron cannon found in the Hudson
River; Chinese cannon captured at Corea; cannon captured at Yorktown;
boot-legs from which the starving members of the Greely Arctic
expedition made soup; relics of Sir John Franklin; a wagon used by
General Sherman throughout all his marches; the sacred shirt worn by
Sitting Bull at the time of the massacre of Custer and his command on
the Little Big Horn.


EXHIBITS OF THE TREASURY AND POSTOFFICE DEPARTMENTS.

In the Treasury Department was represented the United States Mint in
operation, besides historic medals, ancient and modern coins, including
those of foreign countries, a ten-thousand gold dollar certificate and a
silver certificate of the same denomination.

The eyes of the philatelists sparkled at the treasures in the Postoffice
Department, which included all the issues of stamps from 1847 to 1893.
Some of the single stamps were worth thousands of dollars, and it would
have required a fortune to purchase the whole collection, had it been
for sale. The methods of carrying the mail were illustrated by a
representation of dogs drawing a sled over the snow and a Rocky Mountain
stage-coach. It would require volumes to convey an intelligent idea of
the display in the Patent Office, Interior Department, Geological
Survey, Agricultural Department, and the United States Commission.

[Illustration: THOMAS A. EDISON.

(1847-.)]

Everybody knows that wonderful discoveries have been made in
electricity, and no doubt we are close upon still greater ones. The name
of Edison is connected with the marvelous achievements in this field,
and there was much food for thought and speculation in the exhibits of
the Electricity Building. These, while profoundly interesting, were
mainly so in their hints of what are coming in the near future.

Machinery Hall was a favorite with thousands of the visitors. The
exhibits were so numerous that they were divided into eighty-six
classes, grouped into:

1. Motors and apparatus for the generation and transmission of power,
hydraulic and pneumatic apparatus.

2. Fire-engines, apparatus and appliances for extinguishing fire.

3. Machine tools and machines for working metals.

4. Machinery for the manufacture of textile fabrics and clothing.

5. Machines for working wood.

6. Machines and apparatus for type-setting, printing, stamping and
embossing, and for making books and paper making.

7. Lithography, zincography, and color painting.

8. Photo-mechanical and other mechanical processes for illustrating,
etc.

9. Miscellaneous hand-tools, machines and apparatus used in various
arts.

10. Machines for working stones, clay, and other minerals.

11. Machinery used in the preparation of foods, etc.


OTHER NOTABLE EXHIBITS.

The cost of the model of the Convent of Santa Maria de la Rabida, where
the wearied Columbus stopped to crave food for himself and boy, was
$50,000. The relics of the great explorer were numerous and of vivid
interest.

Hardly less interesting was the reproduction of the Viking ship
unearthed in a burial mound in Norway in 1880, the model being precisely
that of the vessels in which the hardy Norsemen navigators crossed the
Atlantic a thousand years ago. It was seventy-six feet in length, the
bow ornamented with a large and finely carved dragon's head and the
stern with a dragon's tail. Rows of embellished shields ran along the
outside of the bulwarks, and all was open except a small deck fore and
aft, while two water-tight compartments gave protection to the men in
stormy weather. The rigging consisted of one mast with a single yard,
that could be readily taken down, but there were places for immense
oars, whose handling must have required tremendous muscular power.

The Agricultural Building had an almost endless variety of articles,
such as cocoa, chocolate, and drugs from the Netherlands; wood pulp from
Sweden; odd-looking shoes and agricultural products from Denmark and
from France, the most striking of which was the Menier chocolate tower
that weighed fifty tons; fertilizers and products from Uruguay; an
elephant tusk seven and a half feet long; woods, wools, and feathers
from the Cape of Good Hope; a Zulu six feet and seven and a half inches
tall; a Canadian cheese weighing eleven tons, with other exhibits from
various countries, and specimens of what are grown in most of our own
States. The articles were so numerous that a list is too lengthy to be
inserted in these pages.

[Illustration: THE VIKING SHIP.

1. Appearance when discovered. 2. After restoration.



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