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The articles were so numerous that a list is too lengthy to be
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[Illustration: THE VIKING SHIP.

1. Appearance when discovered. 2. After restoration. 3. Rudder, shield,
and dragon-head.]

The Manufactures and Liberal Arts Building was of such unprecedented
size that its ground area was more than thirty acres, and its gallery
space forty-four acres. Its roof structure surpassed any ever made, and
it was the largest building in the world. So vast indeed was it that it
is worth our while to impress it upon our minds by several comparisons.
Any church in Chicago, which contains numerous large ones, can be placed
in the vestibule of St. Peter's at Rome, but the latter is only
one-third of the size of the Manufactures and Liberal Arts Building. The
Coliseum of ancient Rome would seat 80,000 persons, but in the central
hall of the Chicago building, which is a single room without a
supporting column, 75,000 people could be comfortably seated, while the
building itself would seat 300,000 persons. The iron and steel in the
roof would build two Brooklyn bridges, and it required eleven acres of
glass to provide for the skylights. In its construction 17,000,000 feet
of lumber, 13,000,000 pounds of steel, and 2,000,000 pounds of iron were
used, with a total cost of $1,700,000. The ground plan was twice the
size of the pyramid of Cheops.

[Illustration]

We have recorded enough, however, to give some idea of the wealth of
treasures exhibited at Chicago in 1893, and which drew visitors from all
parts of the world. It is not worth while to refer at length to the
display of the foreign countries, for those who had the pleasure of
looking upon them will always carry their pleasant memory, while those
who were deprived of the privilege can gain no adequate idea from the
most extended description. The Midway Plaisance was a unique feature,
with its Hungarian Orpheum, Lapland Village, Dahomey Village, the
captive balloon, Chinese Village, Austrian Village, Cyclorama of the
volcano of Kilauea, the Algerian and Tunisian Village, the Ferris Wheel,
the never-to-be-forgotten street in Cairo, the numerous natives, and
other scenes that were not always on the highest plane of morality.

[Illustration]


THE GRAND WORK BY THE STATES.

We as Americans are prone to forget some of the important events in our
history. The memory of them fades too soon. A hundred, years must pass
before our country will look upon another Columbian Exposition. That, in
the nature of things, will surpass the one in 1893, as far as that
surpassed the ordinary country fairs of our grandparents. When that
great year--1992--comes around, none of us will be here to look upon its
wonders. It seems proper, therefore, that, in dismissing the subject, we
should place on record the amount contributed by each State, without
which the grand success of the enterprise could never have been
attained.

Alabama.................. $38,000 Nebraska................. $85,000
Arizona.................. 30,000 Nevada................... 10,000
Arkansas................. 55,000 New Hampshire............ 25,000
California............... 550,000 New Jersey............... 130,000
Colorado................. 167,000 New Mexico............... 35,000
Connecticut.............. 75,000 New York................. 600,000
Delaware................. 20,000 North Carolina........... 45,000
Florida.................. 50,000 North Dakota............. 70,000
Georgia.................. 100,000 Ohio..................... 200,000
Idaho.................... 100,000 Oklahoma................. 17,500
Illinois................. 800,000 Oregon................... 60,000
Indiana.................. 135,000 Pennsylvania............. 360,000
Iowa..................... 130,000 Rhode Island............. 57,500
Kansas................... 165,000 South Carolina........... 50,000
Kentucky................. 175,000 South Dakota............. 85,000
Louisiana................ 36,000 Tennessee................ 25,000
Maine.................... 57,000 Texas.................... 40,000
Maryland................. 60,000 Utah..................... 50,600
Massachusetts............ 175,000 Vermont.................. 39,750
Michigan................. 275,000 Virginia................. 75,000
Minnesota................ 150,000 Washington............... 100,000
Mississippi.............. 25,000 West Virginia............ 40,000
Missouri................. 150,000 Wisconsin................ 212,000
Montana.................. 100,000 Wyoming.................. 30,000
----------
Total................$6,060,350

The islands composing the group known under the general name of Hawaii
have long been of interest to different nations, and especially to our
country. A treaty was made in 1849 between Hawaii and the United States,
which provided for commerce and the extradition of criminals, and in
1875 a reciprocity treaty was concluded. This gave a marked impetus to
the sugar industry, which was almost wholly in the hands of foreigners.
Further treaty rights were confirmed by Congress in 1891.

David Kalakaua became king of Hawaii in 1874. He had slight ability, and
was fonder of the pleasures of life than of measures for the good of his
country and subjects. He was displeased to see the hold gained by
foreigners in his country and their rapidly growing power. He joined
with the native Legislature in its cry of "Hawaii for the Hawaiians,"
and did all he could to check the material progress of the islands.
Progressive men, however, gained control, and in 1887 Kalakaua was
compelled to sign a new constitution which deprived him of all but a
shadow of authority. The white residents were granted the right of
suffrage and closer relations were established with the United States.

While engaged in negotiating a treaty with our country Kalakaua died, in
1891, in San Francisco, and his sister, Liliuokalani, succeeded him as
queen. She was much of the same mould as her brother, but of a more
revengeful nature. She was angered against the foreigners and the
progressive party, and alert for an opportunity to strike them a fatal
blow. She thought the time had come in January, 1893, when the leading
party was bitterly divided over important measures. She summoned the
Legislature and urged it to adopt a new constitution, which took away
the right of suffrage from the white residents and restored to the crown
the many privileges that had been taken from it. She was so radical in
her policy that her friends induced her to modify it in several
respects. She was thoroughly distrusted by the white residents, who did
not doubt that she would break all her promises the moment the pretext
offered. Nor would they have been surprised if a general massacre of the
white inhabitants were ordered.

So deep-seated was the alarm that the American residents appealed for
protection to the United States man-of-war _Boston_, which was lying in
the harbor of Honolulu. The commander landed a company of marines,
against the protest of the queen's minister of foreign affairs and the
governor of the island, although they were assured that no attempt would
be made to interfere with their rights. In the face of this assurance, a
revolt took place, the monarchy was declared at an end, and a
provisional government was organized, to continue until terms of union
with the United States could be agreed upon.

More decided steps followed. On February 1, 1894, the government was
formally placed under the protectorate of the United States, and the
Stars and Stripes was hoisted over the government building by a party of
marines. There was a strong sentiment in favor of annexation, and the
American minister was highly pleased.

President Harrison was of the same mind, and authorized the presence on
the island of troops that might be needed to protect the lives and
property of Americans there, but he disavowed the protectorate. No
doubt, however, he favored the movement, but thought it wise to "make
haste slowly."

In a short time, a treaty was framed which was acceptable to the
President. It provided that the government of Hawaii should remain as it
was, the supreme power to be vested in a commissioner of the United
States, with the right to veto any of the acts of the local government.
The public debt was to be assumed by the United States, while
Liliuokalani was to be pensioned at the rate of $20,000 a year, and her
daughter was to receive $150,000. President Harrison urged upon the
Senate the ratification of the treaty, fearing that delay would induce
some other power to step in and take the prize.

[Illustration: JAMES G. BLAINE.

(1830-1893.)

Secretary of State under Harrison's administration.]


PRESIDENT CLEVELAND'S CHANGE OF POLICY.

Such was the status when President Cleveland came into office on the 4th
of March, 1893. His views were the very opposite of his predecessor's,
and he took steps to enforce them. He maintained there would have been
no revolution in Hawaii had not the force of marines landed from the
_Boston_. He withdrew the proposed treaty from the Senate, and sent
James H. Blount, of Georgia, to Hawaii as special commissioner to make
an investigation of all that had occurred, and to act in harmony with
the views of the President. On the 1st of April, Blount caused the
American flag to be hauled down, and formally dissolved the
protectorate. Minister Stevens was recalled and succeeded by Mr. Blount
as minister plenipotentiary. Steps were taken to restore Liliuokalani,
and her own brutal stubbornness was all that prevented. She was
determined to have the lives of the leaders who had deposed her, and to
banish their families. This could not be permitted, and the Dole
government refused the request to yield its authority to the queen.

The situation brought President Cleveland to a standstill, for he had
first to obtain the authority of Congress in order to use force, and
that body was so opposed to his course that it would never consent to
aid him.



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