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Coxey and two of his friends disregarded the commands, and were
arrested and fined five dollars apiece and sentenced to twenty days'
imprisonment for violating the statute against carrying a banner on the
grounds and in not "keeping off the grass." The army quickly dissolved
and was heard of no more.

Similar organizations started from Oregon, Montana, Colorado, Wyoming,
and different points for Washington. In some instances disreputable
characters joined them and committed disorderly acts. In the State of
Washington they seized a railroad train, had a vicious fight with deputy
marshals, and it was necessary to call out the militia to subdue them.
Trouble occurred in Kansas, Illinois, and Pennsylvania. The total
strength of the six industrial armies never reached 6,000.


ADMISSION OF UTAH.

On the 4th of January, 1896, Utah became the forty-fifth member of the
Federal Union. The symbolical star on the flag is at the extreme right
of the fourth row from the top. The size of the national flag was also
changed from 6 by 5 feet to 5 feet 6 inches by 4 feet 4 inches.

Utah has been made chiefly famous through the Mormons, who emigrated
thither before the discovery of gold in California. Its size is about
double that of the State of New York, and its chief resources are
mineral and agricultural. It forms a part of the Mexican cession of
1848, and its name is derived from the Ute or Utah Indians. Salt Lake
City was founded, and Utah asked for admission into the Union in 1849,
but was refused. A territorial government was organized in 1860, with
Brigham Young as governor. It has been shown elsewhere that in 1857 it
was necessary to send Federal troops to Utah to enforce obedience to the
laws. Polygamy debarred its admission to the Union for many years.

The constitution of the State allows women to vote, hold office, and sit
on juries, and a trial jury numbers eight instead of twelve persons,
three-fourths of whom may render a verdict in civil cases, but unanimity
is required to convict of crime. The constitution also forbids polygamy,
and the Mormon authorities maintain that it is not practiced except
where plural marriages were contracted before the passage of the United
States law prohibiting such unions.

It has been said by scientists that the power which goes to waste at
Niagara Falls would, if properly utilized, operate all the machinery in
the world. The discoveries made in electricity have turned attention to
this inconceivable storage of power, with the result that Niagara has
been practically "harnessed."

In 1886, the Niagara Falls Power Company was incorporated, followed
three years later by that of the Cataract Construction Company. Work
began in October, 1890, and three more years were required to complete
the tunnel, the surface-canal, and the preliminary wheel-pits.

The first distribution of power was made in August, 1895, to the works
of the Pittsburg Reduction Company, near the canal. Other companies were
added, and the city of Buffalo, in December, 1895, granted a franchise
to the company to supply power to that city. The first customer was the
Buffalo Railway Company. November 15, 1896, at midnight, the current was
transmitted by a pole line, consisting of three continuous cables of
uninsulated copper, whose total length was seventy-eight miles. Since
that date, the street cars have been operated by the same motor, with
more industrial points continually added.

[Illustration: A GOLD PROSPECTING PARTY ON DEBATABLE LAND IN BRITISH
GUIANA.]

While our past history shows that we have had only two wars with Great
Britain, yet it shows also that talk of war has been heard fully a score
of times. Long after 1812, we were extremely sensitive as regarded the
nation that the majority of Americans looked upon as our hereditary foe,
and the calls for war have been sounded in Congress and throughout the
land far oftener than most people suspect. That such a calamity to
mankind has been turned aside is due mainly to the good sense and mutual
forbearance of the majority of people in both countries. England and the
United States are the two great English-speaking nations. Together they
are stronger than all the world combined. With the same language, the
same literature, objects, aims, and religion, a war between them would
be the most awful catastrophe that could befall humanity.

The last flurry with the "mother country" occurred in the closing weeks
of 1895, and related to Venezuela, which had been at variance with
England for many years. Until 1810, the territory lying between the
mouths of the Orinoco and the Amazon was known as the Guianas. In the
year named Spain ceded a large part of the country to Venezuela, and in
1814 Holland ceded another to Great Britain. The boundary between the
Spanish and Dutch possessions had never been fixed by treaty, and the
dispute between England and Venezuela lasted until 1887, when diplomatic
relations were broken off between the two countries.

Venezuela asked that the dispute might be submitted to arbitration, but
England would not agree, though the territory in question was greater in
extent than the State of New York. The United States was naturally
interested, for the "Monroe Doctrine" was involved, and in February,
1895, Congress passed a joint resolution, approving the suggestion of
the President that the question should be submitted to arbitration, but
England still refused. A lengthy correspondence took place between Great
Britain and this country, and, on December 17, 1895, in submitting it to
Congress, President Cleveland asked for authority from that body to
appoint a commission to determine the merits of the boundary dispute, as
a guide to the government in deciding its line of action, insisting
further that, if England maintained her unwarrantable course, the United
States should resist "by every means in its power, as a willful
aggression upon its rights and interests, the appropriation by Great
Britain of any lands, or the exercise of governmental jurisdiction over
any territory, which after investigation we have determined of right
belongs to Venezuela."

There was no mistaking the warlike tone of these words. The country and
Congress instantly fired up and the land resounded with war talk.
Congress immediately appropriated the sum of $100,000 for the expense of
the commission of inquiry, and two days later the Senate passed the bill
without a vote in opposition. The committee was named on the 1st of the
following January and promptly began its work.

But the sober second thought of wise men in both countries soon made
itself felt. Without prolonging the story, it may be said that the
dispute finally went to arbitration, February 2, 1897, where it should
have gone in the first place, and it was settled to the full
satisfaction of Great Britain, the United States, and Venezuela. Another
fact may as well be conceded, without any reflection upon our
patriotism: Had England accepted our challenge to war, for which she was
fully prepared with her invincible navy, and we were in a state of
unreadiness, the United States would have been taught a lesson that she
would have remembered for centuries to come. Thank God, the trial was
spared to us and in truth can never come, while common sense reigns.

[Illustration: COUDERT. WHITE. BREWER. ALVEY. GILMAN. VENEZUELAN
COMMISSION. Appointed by President Cleveland, January, 1896, to
determine the true boundary between British Guiana and Venezuela.]


THE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION OF 1896.

The presidential election in the fall of 1896 was a remarkable one. The
month of September had hardly opened when there were eight presidential
tickets in the field. Given in the order of their nominations they
were:

Prohibition (May 27th)--Joshua Levering, of Maryland; Hale Johnson, of
Illinois.

National Party, Free Silver, Woman-Suffrage offshoot of the regular
Prohibition (May 28th)--Charles E. Bentley, of Nebraska; James H.
Southgate, of North Carolina.

Republican (June 18th)--William McKinley, of Ohio; Garret A. Hobart, of
New Jersey.

Socialist-Labor (July 4th)--Charles H. Matchett, of New York; Matthew
Maguire, of New Jersey.

Democratic (July 10th to 11th)--William Jennings Bryan, of Nebraska;
Arthur Sewall, of Maine.

People's Party (July 24th to 25th)--William Jennings Bryan, of Nebraska;
Thomas E. Watson, of Georgia.

National Democratic Party (September 8th)--John McAuley Palmer, of
Illinois; Simon Boliver Buckner, of Kentucky.

[Illustration: WM. JENNINGS BRYAN. Democratic candidate for President,
1896.]

As usual, the real contest was between the Democrats and Republicans.
The platform of the former demanded the free coinage of silver, which
was opposed by the Republicans, who insisted upon preserving the
existing gold standard. This question caused a split in each of the
leading parties. When the Republican nominating convention inserted the
gold and silver plank in its platform, Senator Teller, of Colorado, led
thirty-two delegates in their formal withdrawal from the convention. A
large majority of those to the National Democratic Convention favored
the free coinage of silver in the face of an urgent appeal against it by
President Cleveland. They would accept no compromise, and, after
"jamming" through their platform and nominating Mr. Bryan, they made
Arthur Sewall their candidate for Vice-President, though he was
president of a national bank and a believer in the gold standard.

In consequence of this action, the Populists or People's Party refused
to accept the candidature of Mr. Sewall, and put in his place the name
of Thomas E. Watson, who was an uncompromising Populist.

There was also a revolt among the "Sound Money Democrats," as they were
termed. Although they knew they had no earthly chance of winning, they
were determined to place themselves on record, and, after all the other
tickets were in the field, they put Palmer and Buckner in nomination. In
their platform they condemned the platform adopted by the silver men and
the tariff policy of the Republicans. They favored tariff for revenue
only, the single gold standard, a bank currency under governmental
supervision, international arbitration, and the maintenance of the
independence and authority of the Supreme Court.

Mr.



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