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Governor White sailed for England for more immigrants
and supplies, but when he reached that country he found the internal
troubles so serious that he was kept away from America for three years.
When finally he returned to Virginia, he was unable to find a member of
the colony. On one of the trees was the word "CROATAN" cut in the bark,
which seemed to indicate that the settlers had removed to a settlement
of that name; but, though long and continuous search was made and many
of the articles belonging to the settlers were recognized, not a person
could be discovered. Sir Walter Raleigh sent several expeditions with
orders to use every effort to clear up the mystery, but it was never
solved. The story of the "Lost Colony" has led to a great deal of
investigation and surmise. Two theories have supporters. The most
probable is that all the settlers were massacred by Indians. Another is
that they were adopted by the red men and intermarried among them. In
support of this supposition is the fact that a long time afterward many
members of the adjoining tribes showed unmistakable signs of mixed
blood. There were so-called Indians with blonde hair, blue eyes, and
light complexion--characteristics never seen among those belonging to
the genuine American race.

Holland's explorations in America were less important than those of any
of her rivals. The thrifty Dutchmen were more anxious to secure trade
than to find new countries, and seemed content to allow others to spend
wealth and precious lives in penetrating to the interior of the New
World and in planting settlements, which almost invariably succumbed to
disaster.

Early in the seventeenth century a company of English merchants sent out
a skillful navigator named Henry Hudson to hunt for the elusive
northwest passage. He took with him only eleven men, one of whom was his
son. He made a brave effort to succeed, ploughing his way through the
frozen regions until he passed the 80th degree of latitude, which was
the furthest point then attained by man. But, within less than ten
degrees of the pole, he was forced by the ice to turn back.


THE DISCOVERY OF THE HUDSON RIVER.

Hudson's reputation as a skillful navigator led the wealthy corporation
known as the Dutch East India Company to seek his services. He was
placed in command of a small vessel called the _Half Moon_ and ordered
to sail to the northeast instead of the northwest. He did as directed,
but his experience was similar to his previous one, and, being compelled
to withdraw, he headed westward. Sighting Cape Cod, he named it New
Holland, unaware that it had already been named by Champlain. He
continued southward to Chesapeake Bay, where he learned that the English
had planted a settlement. Turning northward, he entered Delaware Bay,
but was displeased with the shallow water and sailed again northward. On
September 3, 1609, he dropped anchor opposite Sandy Hook.

Hudson now began ascending the magnificent river which bears his name.
At the end of ten days he had reached a point opposite the present site
of Albany. The Indians were friendly and curious. Many of them put out
in their canoes and were made welcome on board the little Dutch vessel,
which was a source of constant wonderment to them, for they had never
seen anything of the kind before.

Descending the stream, Hudson made his way to Dartmouth, England, from
which point he sent an account of his discovery to Holland. That country
lost no time in claiming sovereignty over the new territory, the claim
being so valid that no other nation could legitimately dispute it.

Hudson's achievement added to his fame, and he was once more sent in
search of the northwest passage. He entered the bay and strait which
bear his name, and passed a winter in that terrible region. In the
following spring his crew mutinied, and, placing the navigator, his son,
and several members in an open boat, set them adrift, and none of them
was ever heard of again.

[Illustration: Seal of The Virginia Company.]




CHAPTER II.

SETTLEMENT OF THE THIRTEEN ORIGINAL STATES.

_Virginia_,--Founding of Jamestown--Captain John Smith--Introduction of
African Slavery--Indian Wars--Bacon's Rebellion--Forms of
Government--Prosperity--Education--_New England_,--Plymouth--Massachusetts
Bay Colony--Union of the Colonies--Religious Persecution--King Philip's
War--The Witchcraft Delusion--_New Hampshire_,--_The Connecticut Colony_,
--_The New Haven Colony_,--Union of the Colonies--Indian Wars--The Charter
Oak--_Rhode Island_,--Different Forms of Government--_New York_,--The
Dutch and English Settlers--_New Jersey_,--_Delaware_,--_Pennsylvania_,
--_Maryland_,--Mason and Dixon's Line--_The Carolinas_--_Georgia_.


At the opening of the seventeenth century there was not a single English
settlement on this side of the Atlantic. It has been shown that the
French succeeded in planting colonies in Canada, that of De Monts, in
1605, in Acadia (the French name of Nova Scotia), proving successful,
while Champlain founded Quebec three years later. St. Augustine,
Florida, was founded by the Spanish in 1565, but it has played an
insignificant part in our history. England was the mother of the
colonies, from which the original thirteen States sprang, and we are
vastly more indebted to her than to all other nations combined.


THE FIRST ENGLISH SETTLEMENT.

In the year 1606, when James I. was king of England, he gave a charter
or patent to a number of gentlemen, which made them the owners of all
that part of America lying between the thirty-fourth and thirty-eighth
degrees of north latitude. The men who received this gift associated
themselves together under the name of the London Company, and in the
same year sent out three vessels, carrying 105 men, but no women or
children. A storm drove them out of their course, and, in the month of
May, they entered the mouth of a broad river, which they named the
James in honor of their king. They sailed up stream for fifty miles,
and, on the 13th of May, 1607, began the settlement of Jamestown, which
was the first English colony successfully planted in America. Everything
looked promising, but the trouble was that the men did not wish to work,
and, instead of cultivating the soil, spent their time in hunting for
gold which did not exist anywhere near them. They were careless in their
manner of living and a great many fell ill and died. They must have
perished before long had they not been wise enough to elect Captain John
Smith president or ruler of the colony.


CAPTAIN JOHN SMITH AND HIS ADVENTURES.

This man is one of the most interesting characters in the early history
of our country. He was a great boaster, and most of his associates did
not like him. He had been a wanderer in many parts of the world, and had
any number of stories to tell of his wonderful adventures. Probably some
of those stories were true and many fiction. Be that as it may, he was
an energetic and brave man, and the very one to save the perishing
settlers. He made every man work, and none wrought harder than himself.
As a consequence matters began to mend at once.

Obeying his orders in London, Captain Smith, when it seemed prudent to
do so, spent much of his time in exploring the streams that flowed into
the James. It must not be forgotten that it was still believed in Europe
that America formed a part of Asia, and that no one needed to penetrate
far into the interior to reach that country.

On one of these voyages Captain Smith was taken prisoner by the Indians,
who led him before their chief Powhatan. The chief decided that he must
be put to death, and, with his hands tied together, he was placed on the
ground, with his head resting on two big stones. Then one of the
warriors stepped forward to dash out his brains with a club. At that
moment Pocahontas, the young daughter of the chief, ran forward, and,
throwing her arms around the head of Smith, begged her father to spare
his life. The chief consented, and the prisoner was set free and
returned to Jamestown. Such is the story which Captain Smith told after
the death of Pocahontas in England, which she had visited with her
husband, an Englishman named Rolfe, and it can never be known whether
the incident was true or not. Some years later Smith was so badly
injured by the explosion of gunpowder that he had to return to England
for treatment. There he died in 1631. His invaluable services in this
country have led historians to regard him as the saviour of the Virginia
colony.

[Illustration: POCAHONTAS SAVING THE LIFE OF JOHN SMITH.]

The most woeful blow that was struck the American colonies was in
August, 1619, when a Dutch ship sailed up the James and sold twenty
negroes, kidnapped in Africa, to the colonists as slaves. It was thus
that African slavery was introduced into this country, bringing in its
train more sorrow, suffering, desolation, and death than pen can
describe or imagination conceive. The institution became legal in all
the colonies, and the ships of New England, as well as those of old
England, were actively engaged for many years in the slave trade.

[Illustration: THE MARRIAGE OF POCAHONTAS.]

WARS WITH THE INDIANS.

The marriage of Pocahontas to one of the settlers made her father a firm
friend of the whites as long as he lived. At his death, his brother
Opechankano succeeded him. He hated intensely the invaders of the
hunting grounds, and began plotting to exterminate them. On the 22d of
March, 1622, he made such a sudden and furious assault upon the
plantations, as the farms were called, along the James that 400 people
were killed in one day. The settlers rallied, slew many of the Indians
and drove the remainder far back in the woods, but by the time this was
accomplished half of the 4,000 settlers were dead and the eighty
plantations were reduced to eight.

Opechankano was not crushed, and for more than twenty years he busied
himself in perfecting his plans for a greater and more frightful
massacre. It was in April, 1644, that he struck his second blow, killing
between three and four hundred of the settlers.



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