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As the _Brooklyn_ and _Oregon_ moved upon
the prey word of the surrender was sent below, and naked men poured out
of the fire-rooms, black with smoke and dirt and glistening with
perspiration, but wild with joy. Commodore Schley gazed down at the
grimy, gruesome, joyous firemen with glistening eyes suspicious of
tears, and said, in a husky voice, eloquent with emotion, "_Those are
the fellows who made this day_." Then he signaled--"The enemy has
surrendered." The _Texas_, five miles to the east, repeated the signal
to Admiral Sampson some miles further away, coming at top speed of the
_New York_. Next the commodore signaled the admiral--"_A glorious
victory has been achieved. Details communicated later_." And then, to
all the ships, "_This is a great day for our country_," all of which
were repeated by the _Texas_ to the ships further east. The cheering was
wild. Such a scene was never, perhaps, witnessed upon the ocean. Admiral
Sampson arrived before the _Colon_ sank, and placing the great nose of
the _New York_ against that vessel pushed her into shallow water, where
she sank, but was not entirely submerged. Thus perished from the earth
the bulk of the sea power of Spain.

The Spanish losses were 1,800 men killed, wounded, and made prisoners,
and six ships destroyed or sunk, the property loss being about
$12,000,000. The American loss was one man killed and three wounded, all
from the _Brooklyn_, a result little short of a miracle from the fact
that the _Brooklyn_ was hit thirty-six times, and nearly all the ships
were struck more than once.

The prisoners were treated with the utmost courtesy. Many of them were
taken or rescued entirely naked, and scores of them were wounded. Their
behavior was manly and their fortitude won the admiration of their
captors. Whatever may be said of Spanish marksmanship, there is no
discount on Spanish courage. After a short detention Cervera and his
captured sailors were sent north to New Hampshire and thence to
Annapolis, where they were held until released by order of President
McKinley, August 31st.


On July 3d, while the great naval duel was in progress upon the sea,
General Shafter demanded the surrender of Santiago upon pain of
bombardment. The demand was refused by General Toral, who commanded the
forces after the wounding of General Linares. General Shafter stated
that he would postpone the bombardment until noon of July 5th to allow
foreigners and non-combatants to get out of the city, and he urged
General Toral in the name of humanity to use his influence and aid to
facilitate the rapid departure of unarmed citizens and foreigners.
Accordingly late in the afternoon of July 4th General Toral posted
notices upon the walls of Santiago advising all women, children, and
non-combatants that between five and nine o'clock on the morning of the
5th they might pass out by any gate of the city, all pilgrims going on
foot, no carriages being allowed, and stating that stretchers would be
provided for the crippled.


Promptly at five o'clock on the following morning a great line of
pilgrims wound out of Santiago. It was no rabble, but well-behaved
crowds of men and women, with great droves of children. About four
hundred persons were carried out on litters. Many of the poorer women
wore large crucifixes and some entered El Caney telling their beads. But
there were many not so fortunate as to reach the city. Along the
highroads in all directions thousands of families squatted entirely
without food or shelter, and many deaths occurred among them. The Red
Cross Society did much to relieve the suffering, but it lacked means of
transporting supplies to the front.

[Illustration: THE SURRENDER OF SANTIAGO, JULY 17, 1898.

After a little ceremony the two commanding Generals faced each other,
and General Toral, speaking in Spanish, said: "Through fate I am forced
to surrender to General Shafter of the American Army the city and
strongholds of the City of Santiago." General Shafter in reply said: "I
receive the city in the name of the Government of the United States."]

While the flag of truce was still flying on the morning of July 6th a
communication was received from General Toral, requesting that the time
of truce be further extended, as he wanted to communicate again with the
Spanish government at Madrid concerning the surrender of the city; and,
further, that the cable operators, who were Englishmen and had fled to
El Caney with the refugees, be returned to the city that he might do so.
General Shafter extended the truce until four o'clock on Sunday, July
10th, and the operators returned from El Caney to work the wires for
General Toral. During all this time the refugees continued to throng the
roads to Siboney and El Caney, until 20,000 fugitives were congregated
at the two points. It is a disgraceful fact, however, that while this
truce was granted at the request of the Spanish general, it was taken
advantage of by the troops under him to loot the city. Both Cuban and
Spanish families suffered from their rapacity.



On July 8th and 10th the two expeditions of General Miles arrived,
reinforcing General Shafter's army with over 6,000 men. General Toral
was acquainted with the fact of their presence, and General Miles
urgently impressed upon him that further resistance could but result in
a useless loss of life. The Spanish commander replied that he had not
received permission to surrender, and if the Americans would not wait
longer he could only obey orders of his government, and that he and his
men would die fighting. Accordingly a joint bombardment by the army and
navy was begun. The artillery reply of the Spaniards was feeble and
spiritless, though our attack on the city was chiefly with artillery.
They seemed to depend most upon their small arms, and returned the
volleys fired from the trenches vigorously. Our lines were elaborately
protected with over 22,000 sand-bags, while the Spaniards were protected
with bamboo poles filled with earth. In this engagement the dynamite gun
of the Rough Riders did excellent service, striking the enemy's
trenches and blowing field-pieces into the air. The bombardment
continued until the afternoon of the second day, when a flag of truce
was displayed over the city. It was thought that General Toral was about
to surrender, but instead he only asked more time.

On the advice of General Miles, General Shafter consented to another
truce, and, at last, on July 14th, after an interview with Generals
Miles and Shafter, in which he agreed to give up the city on condition
that the army would be returned to Spain at the expense of America,
General Toral surrendered. On July 16th the agreement, with the formal
approval of the Madrid and Washington governments, was signed in
duplicate by the commissioners, each side retaining a copy. This event
was accepted throughout the world as marking the end of the
Spanish-American War.

The conditions of the surrender involved the following points:

"(1) The 20,000 refugees at El Caney and Siboney to be sent back to
the city. (2) An American infantry patrol to be posted on the roads
surrounding the city and in the country between it and the American
cavalry. (3) Our hospital corps to give attention, as far as
possible, to the sick and wounded Spanish soldiers in Santiago. (4)
All the Spanish troops in the province, except ten thousand men at
Holguin, under command of General Luque, to come into the city and
surrender. (5) The guns and defenses of the city to be turned over to
the Americans in good condition. (6) The Americans to have full use
of the Juragua Railroad, which belongs to the Spanish government. (7)
The Spaniards to surrender their arms. (8) All the Spaniards to be
conveyed to Spain on board of American transports with the least
possible delay, and be permitted to take portable church property
with them."


The formality of taking possession of the city yet remained to be done.
To that end, immediately after the signing of the agreement by the
commissioners, General Shafter notified General Toral that he would
formally receive his surrender of the city the next day, Sunday, July
17th, at nine o'clock in the morning. Accordingly at about 8.30 A.M.,
Sunday, General Shafter, accompanied by the commander of the American
army, General Nelson A. Miles, Generals Wheeler and Lawton, and several
officers, walked slowly down the hill to the road leading to Santiago.
Under the great mango tree which had witnessed all the negotiations,
General Toral, in full uniform, accompanied by 200 Spanish officers, met
the Americans. After a little ceremony in military manoeuvring, the
two commanding generals faced each other, and General Toral, speaking in
Spanish, said:

"Through fate I am forced to surrender to General Shafter, of the
American army, the city and the strongholds of the city of Santiago."

General Toral's voice trembled with emotion as he spoke the words giving
up the town to his victorious enemy. As he finished speaking the Spanish
officers presented arms.

General Shafter, in reply, said:

"I receive the city in the name of the government of the United States."

The officers of the Spanish general then wheeled about, presenting arms,
and General Shafter, with the American officers, cavalry and infantry,
chosen for the occasion, passed into the city and on to the governor's
palace, where a crowd, numbering 3,000 persons, had gathered. As the
great bell in the tower of the cathedral nearby gave the first stroke of
twelve o'clock the American flag was run up from the flag-pole on the
palace, and as it floated to the breeze all hats were removed by the
spectators, while the soldiers presented arms. As the cathedral bell
tolled the last stroke of the hour the military band began to play "The
Star-Spangled Banner," which was followed by "Three Cheers for the Red,
White, and Blue." The cheering of the soldiers were joined by more than
half of the people, who seemed greatly pleased and yelled "Viva los
Americanos." The soldiers along almost the whole of the American line
could see and had watched with alternating silence and cheers the entire



Having assigned soldiers to patrol and preserve order within the city,
General Shafter and his staff returned to their quarters at camp, and
the victorious commander, who two weeks before was almost disheartened,
sent a dispatch announcing the formal surrender of Santiago.

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