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It was the
first dispatch of the kind received at Washington from a foreign country
for more than fifty years. The following extract from General Shafter's
telegram sums up the situation:

"I have the honor to announce that the American flag has been this
instant, 12 noon, hoisted over the house of the civil government in the
city of Santiago. An immense concourse of people was present, a squadron
of cavalry and a regiment of infantry presenting arms, and a band
playing national airs. A light battery fired a salute of twenty-one
guns.

"Perfect order is being maintained by the municipal government. The
distress is very great, but there is little sickness in town, and
scarcely any yellow fever.

"A small gunboat and about 200 seamen left by Cervera have surrendered
to me. Obstructions are being removed from the mouth of the harbor.

"Upon coming into the city I discovered a perfect entanglement of
defenses. Fighting as the Spaniards did the first day, it would have
cost five thousand lives to have taken it.

"Battalions of Spanish troops have been depositing arms since daylight
in the armory, over which I have a guard. General Toral formally
surrendered the plaza and all stores at 9 A.M. About 7,000 rifles,
600,000 cartridges, and many fine modern guns were given up.

"This important victory, with its substantial fruits of conquest, was
won by a loss of 1,593 men killed, wounded, and missing. Lawton, who had
the severe fighting around El Caney, lost 410 men. Kent lost 859 men in
the still more severe assault on San Juan and the other conflicts of the
centre. The cavalry lost 285 men, many of whom fell at El Caney, and the
feint at Aguadores cost thirty-seven men. One man of the Signal Corps
was killed and one wounded. Trying as it is to bear the casualties of
the first fight, there can be no doubt that in a military sense our
success was not dearly won."

Thus within less than thirty days from the time Shafter's army landed
upon Cuban soil he had received the surrender not only of the city of
Santiago, but nearly the whole of the province of that name--or about
one-tenth of the entire island.


THE WAR IN PORTO RICO.

It was General Miles' original plan after establishing a blockade of
Cuban ports to open the war in Porto Rico, and make no general invasion
of Cuba during the sickly season, but the enclosure of Cervera's fleet
in the harbor of Santiago changed the conditions and made it necessary
to move a military force to that point before going elsewhere.

Now that Santiago had surrendered, according to the original plan of
General Miles, the attention of the army and navy was again turned to
Porto Rico, and the work of fitting out expeditions to that island was
begun at once. There were three expeditions sent. The first under
General Miles sailed from Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, July 21st; the second
under General Ernst on the same day sailed from Charleston, S.C.; the
third under General Brooke embarked at Newport News on July 26th. All of
these expeditions, aggregating about 11,000 men, were convoyed by
war-ships, and successfully landed. The first, under General Miles,
reached Guanica at daylight on July 25th, where a Spanish force
attempted to resist their landing, but a few well-directed shells from
the _Massachusetts_, _Gloucester_, and _Columbia_ soon put the enemy to
flight. A party then went ashore and pulled down the Spanish flag from
the blockhouse--the first trophy of war from Porto Rican soil. As the
troops began to land the Spaniards opened fire upon them. The Americans
replied with their rifles and machine guns, and the ships also shelled
the enemy from the harbor. Five dead Spaniards were found after the
firing had ceased. Not an American was touched.

Before nightfall all the troops were landed. The next day General Miles
marched toward Ponce. Four men were wounded in a skirmish at Yauco on
the way, but at Ponce, where General Ernst's expedition from Charleston
met them and disembarked on July 28th, the Spaniards fled on the
approach of the Americans, whom the mayor of the city and the people
welcomed with joy, making many demonstrations in their honor and
offering their services to hunt and fight the Spaniards. General Miles
issued a proclamation to the people declaring clearly the United States'
purpose of annexing them. The mayor of Ponce published this
proclamation, with an appeal from himself to the people to salute and
hail the American flag as their own, and to welcome and aid the American
soldiers as their deliverers and brothers.

On August 4th General Brooke arrived, and the fleet commander, Captain
Higginson, with little resistance opened the port of Arroyo, where they
were successfully landed the next day, and General Haines' brigade
captured the place with a few prisoners.

The Americans were then in possession of all the principal ports on the
south coast, covering between fifty and sixty miles of that shore. A
forward movement was inaugurated in three divisions--all of which we
will consider together--the object of General Miles being to occupy the
island and drive the Spanish forces before him into San Juan, and by the
aid of the fleet capture them there in a body, though the Spanish forces
numbered 8,000 regulars and 9,000 volunteers, against which were the
11,000 land forces of the Americans and also their fleet.

The town of Coamo was captured August 9th after half an hour of fighting
by Generals Ernst and Wilson, the Americans driving the Spaniards from
their trenches, and sustaining a loss of six wounded. On the 10th
General Schwan encountered 1,000 Spaniards at Rosario River. This was
the most severe engagement in Porto Rico. The Spaniards were routed,
with what loss is unknown. The Americans had two killed and sixteen
wounded.

On the 11th General Wilson moved on to Abonito and found the enemy
strongly intrenched in the mountain fastnesses along the road. He
ventured an attack with artillery, sustaining a loss of one man killed
and four wounded. On pain of another attack he sent a messenger
demanding the surrender of the town of Abonito; but the soldierly answer
was sent back: "Tell General Wilson to stay where he is if he wishes to
avoid the shedding of much blood." General Wilson concluded to delay
until General Brooke could come up before making the assault, and, while
thus waiting, the news of peace arrived.

Meantime General Brooke had been operating around Guayama, where he had
five men wounded. At three o'clock, August 12th, the battle was just
opening in good order, and a great fight was anticipated. The gunners
were sighting their first pieces when one of the signal corps galloped
up with the telegram announcing _peace_. "You came just fifteen minutes
too soon. The troops will be disappointed," said General Brooke, and
they were.

So ended the well-planned campaign of Porto Rico, in which General Miles
had arranged, by a masterly operation with 11,000 men, the occupation of
an island 108 miles long by thirty-seven broad. As it was, he had
already occupied about one-third of the island with a loss of only three
killed and twenty-eight wounded, against a preponderating force of
17,000 Spaniards.

After the signing of the protocol of peace General Brooke was left in
charge of about half the forces in Porto Rico, pending a final peace,
while General Miles with the other half returned to the United States,
where he arrived early in September and was received with fitting
ovations in New York, Philadelphia, and Washington, at which latter city
he again took up his quarters as the Commander of the American Army.


THE CONQUEST OF THE PHILIPPINES.

After Dewey's victory at Manila, already referred to, it became evident
that he must have the co-operation of an army in capturing and
controlling the city. The insurgents under General Aguinaldo appeared
anxious to assist Admiral Dewey, but it was feared that he could not
control them. Accordingly, the big monitor _Monterey_ was started for
Manila and orders were given for the immediate outfitting of expeditions
from San Francisco under command of Major-General Wesley Merritt. The
first expedition consisted of between 2,500 and 3,000 troops, commanded
by Brigadier-General Anderson, carried on three ships, the _Charleston_,
the _City of Pekin_, and the _City of Sydney_. This was the longest
expedition (about 6,000 miles) on which American troops were ever sent,
and the men carried supplies to last a year. The _Charleston_ got away
on the 22d, and the other two vessels followed three days later. The
expedition went through safely, arriving at Manila July 1st. The
_Charleston_ had stopped on June 21st at the Ladrone Islands and
captured the island of Guam without resistance. The soldiers of the
garrison were taken on as prisoners to Manila and a garrison of American
soldiers left in charge, with the stars and stripes waving over the
fortifications.

[Illustration: IN THE WAR ROOM AT WASHINGTON.

The above illustration shows President McKinley, Secretary Long,
Secretary Alger, and Major-General Miles consulting map during the
progress of the Spanish-American War. It is in this room that the plans
of conducting the war by land and sea, are formulated, and the commands
for action are wired to the fleet and the army.]

The second expedition of 3,500 men sailed June 15th under General
Greene, who used the steamer _China_ as his flagship. This expedition
landed July 16th at Cavite in the midst of considerable excitement on
account of the aggressive movements of the insurgents and the daily
encounters and skirmishes between them and the Spanish forces.

On June 23d the monitor _Monadnoc_ sailed to further reinforce Admiral
Dewey, and four days later the third expedition of 4,000 troops under
General McArthur passed out of the Golden Gate amid the cheers of the
multitude, as the others had done; and on the 29th General Merritt
followed on the _Newport_. Nearly one month later, July 23d, General
H.G. Otis, with 900 men, sailed on the _City of Rio de Janeiro_ from San
Francisco, thus making a total of nearly 12,000 men, all told, sent to
the Philippine Islands.

General Merritt arrived at Cavite July 25th, and on July 29th the
American forces advanced from Cavite toward Manila.



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