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This expedition
landed July 16th at Cavite in the midst of considerable excitement on
account of the aggressive movements of the insurgents and the daily
encounters and skirmishes between them and the Spanish forces.

On June 23d the monitor _Monadnoc_ sailed to further reinforce Admiral
Dewey, and four days later the third expedition of 4,000 troops under
General McArthur passed out of the Golden Gate amid the cheers of the
multitude, as the others had done; and on the 29th General Merritt
followed on the _Newport_. Nearly one month later, July 23d, General
H.G. Otis, with 900 men, sailed on the _City of Rio de Janeiro_ from San
Francisco, thus making a total of nearly 12,000 men, all told, sent to
the Philippine Islands.

General Merritt arrived at Cavite July 25th, and on July 29th the
American forces advanced from Cavite toward Manila. On the 31st, while
enroute, they were attacked at Malate by 3,000 Spaniards, whom they
repulsed, but sustained a loss of nine men killed and forty-seven
wounded, nine of them seriously. This was the first loss of life on the
part of the Americans in action in the Philippines. The Spanish
casualties were much heavier. On the same day General McArthur's
reinforcements arrived at Cavite, and several days were devoted to
preparations for a combined land and naval attack.

[Illustration: MAJOR-GENERAL WESLEY MERRITT.]

On August 7th Admiral Dewey and General Merritt demanded the surrender
of the city within forty-eight hours, and foreign war-ships took their
respective subjects on board for protection. On August 9th the
Spaniards asked more time to hear from Madrid, but this was refused,
and on the 13th a final demand was made for immediate surrender, which
Governor-General Augusti refused and embarked with his family on board a
German man-of-war, which sailed with him for Hong Kong. At 9.30 o'clock
the bombardment began with fury, all of the vessels sending hot shot at
the doomed city.

In the midst of the bombardment by the fleet American soldiers under
Generals McArthur and Greene were ordered to storm the Spanish trenches
which extended ten miles around the city. The soldiers rose cheering and
dashed for the Spanish earthworks. A deadly fire met them, but the men
rushed on and swept the enemy from their outer defenses, forcing them to
their inner trenches. A second charge was made upon these, and the
Spaniards retreated into the walled city, where they promptly sent up a
white flag. The ships at once ceased firing, and the victorious
Americans entered the city after six hours' fighting. General Merritt
took command as military governor. The Spanish forces numbered 7,000 and
the Americans 10,000 men. The loss to the Americans was about fifty
killed, wounded, and missing, which was very small under the
circumstances.

In the meantime the insurgents had formed a government with Aguinaldo as
president. They declared themselves most friendly to American occupation
of the islands, with a view to aiding them to establish an independent
government, which they hoped would be granted to them. On September 15th
they opened their republican congress at Malolos, and President
Aguinaldo made the opening address, expressing warm appreciation of
Americans and indulging the hope that they meant to establish the
independence of the islands. On September 16th, however, in obedience to
the command of General Otis, they withdrew their forces from the
vicinity of Manila.


PEACE NEGOTIATIONS AND THE PROTOCOL.

Precisely how to open the negotiations for peace was a delicate and
difficult question. Its solution, however, proved easy enough when the
attempt was made. During the latter part of July the Spanish government,
through M. Jules Cambon, the French ambassador at Washington, submitted
a note, asking the United States government for a statement of the
ground on which it would be willing to cease hostilities and arrange for
a peaceable settlement. Accordingly, on July 30th, a statement,
embodying President McKinley's views, was transmitted to Spain, and on
August 2d Spain virtually accepted the terms by cable. On August 9th
Spain's formal reply was presented by M. Cambon, and on the next day he
and Secretary Day agreed upon terms of a protocol, to be sent to Spain
for her approval. Two days later, the 12th inst., the French ambassador
was authorized to sign the protocol for Spain, and the signatures were
affixed the same afternoon at the White House (M. Cambon signing for
Spain and Secretary Day for the United States), in the presence of
President McKinley and the chief assistants of the Department of State.
The six main points covered by the protocol were as follows:

"1. That Spain will relinquish all claim of sovereignty over and title
to Cuba.

"2. That Porto Rico and other Spanish islands in the West Indies, and an
island in the Ladrones, to be selected by the United States, shall be
ceded to the latter.

"3. That the United States will occupy and hold the city, bay, and
harbor of Manila, pending the conclusion of a treaty of peace which
shall determine the control, disposition, and government of the
Philippines.

"4. That Cuba, Porto Rico, and other Spanish islands in the West Indies
shall be immediately evacuated, and that commissioners, to be appointed
within ten days, shall, within thirty days from the signing of the
protocol, meet at Havana and San Juan, respectively, to arrange and
execute the details of the evacuation.

"5. That the United States and Spain will each appoint not more than
five commissioners to negotiate and conclude a treaty of peace. The
commissioners are to meet at Paris not later than October 1st.

"6. On the signing of the protocol, hostilities will be suspended and
notice to that effect be given as soon as possible by each government to
the commanders of its military and naval forces."

On the very same afternoon President McKinley issued a proclamation
announcing on the part of the United States a suspension of hostilities,
and over the wires the word went ringing throughout the length and
breadth of the land and under the ocean that peace was restored. The
cable from Hong Kong to Manila, however, had not been repaired for use
since Dewey had cut it in May; consequently it was several days before
tidings could reach General Merritt and Admiral Dewey; and meantime the
battle of Manila, which occurred on the 13th, was fought.

On August 17th President McKinley named commissioners to adjust the
Spanish evacuation of Cuba and Porto Rico, in accordance with the terms
of the protocol. Rear-Admiral Wm. T. Sampson, Senator Matthew C. Butler,
and Major-General James F. Wade were appointed for Cuba, and
Rear-Admiral W.S. Schley, Brigadier-General Wm. W. Gordon, and
Major-General John R. Brooke for Porto Rico. In due time Spain announced
her commissioners, and, as agreed, they met in September and the
arrangements for evacuation were speedily completed and carried out.

President McKinley appointed as the National Peace Commission,
Secretary of State Wm. R. Day, Senator Cushman K. Davis of Minnesota,
Senator Wm. P. Frye of Maine, Senator George Gray of Delaware, and Mr.
Whitelaw Reid of New York. Secretary Day resigned his State portfolio
September 16th, in which he was succeeded by Colonel John Hay, former
Ambassador to England. With ex-Secretary Day at their head the Americans
sailed from New York, September 17th, met the Spanish Commissioners at
Paris, France, as agreed, and arranged the details of the final peace
between the two nations. Thus ended the Spanish-American War.


HOME-COMING OF OUR SOLDIERS.

After Spain's virtual acceptance of the terms of peace contained in
President McKinley's note of July 30th, it was deemed unnecessary to
keep all the forces unoccupied in the fever districts of Cuba and the
unsanitary camps of our own country; consequently the next day after
receipts of Spain's message of August 2d, on August 3d, the home-coming
was inaugurated by ordering all cavalry under General Shafter at
Santiago to be transported to Montauk Point, Long Island, and on the 6th
instant transports sailed bearing those who were to come north. These
were followed rapidly by others from Santiago, and later by about half
the forces from Porto Rico under General Miles, and others from the
various camps, so that by the end of September, 1898, nearly half of the
great army of 268,000 men had been mustered out of service or sent home
on furlough.

It is a matter of universal regret that so many of our brave volunteers
died of neglect in camps and on transports, and that fever, malaria, and
exposure carried several times the number to their graves as were sent
there by Spanish bullets. Severe criticisms have been lodged against the
War Department for both lack of efficiency and neglect in caring for the
comfort, health, and life of those who went forward at their country's
call.

However, it must be remembered that the War Department undertook and
accomplished a herculean task, and it could not be expected, starting
with a regular force of less than 30,000 men, that an army of a quarter
of a million could be built up out of volunteers who had to be
collected, trained, clothed, equipped, and provisioned, and a war waged
and won on two sides of the globe, in a little over three months,
without much suffering and many mistakes.


THE TREATY OF PEACE.

December 10, 1898, was one of the most eventful days in the past
decade--one fraught with great interest to the world, and involving the
destiny of more than 10,000,000 of people. At nine o'clock on the
evening of that day the commissioners of the United States and those of
Spain met for the last time, after about eleven weeks of
deliberation, in the magnificent apartments of the foreign ministry at
the French capital, and signed the Treaty of Peace, which finally marked
the end of the Spanish-American War.

[Illustration: THE UNITED STATES PEACE COMMISSIONERS OF THE SPANISH WAR

Appointed September 9, 1898. Met Spanish Commissioners at Paris, October
1st. Treaty of Peace signed by the Commissioners at Paris, December
10th.



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