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Judgments rendered either in civil suits between private
individuals or in criminal matters before the date mentioned and with
respect to which there is no recourse or right of revenue under the
Spanish law shall be deemed to be final, and shall be executed in due
form by competent authority in the territory within which such
judgments should be carried out.

2. Civil suits between private individuals which may on the date
mentioned be undetermined shall be prosecuted to judgment before the
court in which they may then be pending or in the court that may be
substituted therefor.

3. Criminal actions pending on the date mentioned before the Supreme
Court of Spain against citizens of the territory which by this treaty
ceases to be Spanish shall continue under its jurisdiction until
final judgment; but such judgment having been rendered, the execution
thereof shall be committed to the competent authority of the place in
which the case arose.

ARTICLE XIII.--The rights of property secured by copyrights and
patents acquired by Spaniards in the Island de Cuba, and in Porto
Rico, the Philippines, and other ceded territories, at the time of
the exchange of the ratifications of this treaty, shall continue to
be respected. Spanish scientific, literary, and artistic works not
subversive of public order in the territories in question shall
continue to be admitted free of duty into such territories for the
period of ten years, to be reckoned from the days of the exchange of
the ratifications of this treaty.

ARTICLE XIV.--Spain will have the power to establish consular offices
in the ports and places of the territories the sovereignty over which
has been either relinquished or ceded by the present treaty.

ARTICLE XV.--The Government of each country will, for the term of ten
years, accord to the merchant vessels of the other country the same
treatment in respect of all port charges, including entrance and
clearance dues, light dues and tonnage duties, as it accords to its
own merchant vessels not engaged in the coastwise trade.

This article may at any time be terminated on six months' notice
given by either Government to the other.

ARTICLE XVI.--It is understood that any obligations assumed in this
treaty by the United States with respect to Cuba are limited to the
time of its occupancy thereof; but it will, upon the termination of
such occupancy, advise any government established in the island to
assume the same obligations.

ARTICLE XVII.--The present treaty shall be ratified by the President
of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the
Senate thereof, and by Her Majesty, the Queen Regent of Spain, and
the ratifications shall be exchanged at Washington within six months
from the date hereof, or earlier, if possible.

In faith whereof, we, the respective Plenipotentiaries, have signed
this treaty and have hereunto affixed our seals.

Done in duplicate, at Paris, the tenth day of December, in the year
of our Lord one thousand eighteen hundred and ninety-eight.

WILLIAM R. DAY,

WILLIAM P. FRYE,

WHITELAW REID,

B. DE ABARZUZA,

W.R. DE VILLA URRUTIA,

CUSHMAN K. DAVIS,

GEORGE GRAY,

EUGENIO M. RIOS,

J. DE GARNICA,

RAFAEL CERERO.

The Queen Regent of Spain signed the ratification of the Treaty of Peace
on March 17, 1899, and the final act took place on the afternoon of
April 11th, when copies of the final protocol were exchanged at
Washington by President McKinley and the French ambassador, M. Cambon,
representing Spain. The President immediately issued a proclamation of
peace, and thus the Spanish-American War came to an official end. A few
weeks later the sum of $20,000,000 was paid to Spain, in accordance with
the treaty, as partial compensation for the surrender of her rights in
the Philippines, and diplomatic relations between the Latin kingdom and
the United States were resumed.

The territory which passes under the control of our government by the
above treaty of peace has a combined area of about 168,000 square miles,
equal to nine good States. It all lies within the tropics, where
hitherto not an acre of our country has extended; and, for that reason,
its acquisition is of the greatest commercial significance. These
islands produce all tropical fruits, plants, spices, timbers, etc. Their
combined population is upwards of 10,000,000 people, and among this vast
number there are few manufactories of any kind. They are consumers or
prospective consumers of all manufactured goods; they require the
products of the temperate zone, and in return everything they produce is
marketable in our country.

The Spanish forces withdrew from Cuba, December 31, 1898, and, on the
following day, the Stars and Stripes was hoisted over Havana. The
change of sovereignties in Porto Rico took place without trouble, but
there has been some disturbance in Cuba, and it is evident that
considerable time must elapse before peace will be fully restored and a
stable government established in the island.

Though the war with Spain was closed, serious trouble broke out in the
Philippines. Aguinaldo, who had headed most of the rebellions against
Spain during the later years, refused to acknowledge the authority of
the United States, and, rallying thousands of Filipinos around him, set
on foot what he claimed was a war of independence. Our government sent a
strong force of regulars and volunteers thither, all of whom acquitted
themselves with splendid heroism and bravery, and defeated the rebels
repeatedly, capturing strongholds one after the other, and, in fact,
driving everything resistlessly before them. The fighting was of the
sharpest kind, and our troops had many killed and wounded, though that
of the enemy was tenfold greater. All such struggles, however, when
American valor and skill are arrayed on one side, can have but one
result; and, animated by our sense of duty, which demanded that a firm,
equitable, and just government should be established in the Philippines,
this beneficent purpose was certain to be attained in the end.

[Illustration: MAJOR-GENERAL ELWELL S. OTIS]

On March 3, 1899, President McKinley nominated Rear-Admiral George Dewey
to the rank of full admiral, his commission to date from March 2d, and
the Senate immediately and unanimously confirmed the nomination, which
had been so richly earned. This hero, as modest as he is great, remained
in the Philippines to complete his herculean task, instead of seizing
the first opportunity to return home and receive the overwhelming honors
which his countrymen were eagerly waiting to show him. Finally, when his
vast work was virtually completed and his health showed evidence of the
terrific and long-continued strain to which it had been subjected, he
turned over his command, by direction of the government, to Rear-Admiral
Watson, and, proceeding by a leisurely course, reached home in the
autumn of 1899. The honors showered upon him by his grateful and
admiring countrymen proved not only his clear title to the foremost rank
among the greatest naval heroes of ancient and modern times, but
attested the truth that the United States is not ungrateful, and that
there is no reward too exalted for her to bestow upon those who have
worthily won it.

[Illustration: ADMIRAL DEWEY'S FLAGSHIP THE "OLYMPIA."]

[Illustration: GEN. ARTHUR MacARTHUR.]

[Illustration: GEN. CHARLES KING.]

[Illustration: GEN HENRY W. LAWTON.]

[Illustration: GEN. FRED. FUNSTON.]

POPULAR COMMANDERS IN THE FILIPINO WAR.




CHAPTER XXVI.

ADMINISTRATION OF McKINLEY (CONTINUED) 1897-1901.

OUR NEW POSSESSIONS.

The Islands of Hawaii--Their Inhabitants and Products--City of
Honolulu--History of Cuba--The Ten Years' War--The Insurrection of
1895-98--Geography and Productions of Cuba--Its Climate--History of
Porto Rico--Its People and Productions--San Juan and Ponce--Location,
Discovery, and History of the Philippines--Insurrections of the
Filipinos--City of Manila--Commerce--Philippine Productions--Climate and
Volcanoes--Dewey at Manila--The Ladrone Islands--Conclusion.


THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS "THE PARADISE OF THE PACIFIC."

The annexation of the Hawaiian Islands to the United States, by a joint
vote of Congress, July 7, 1898, marks a new era in the history of our
country. It practically sounded the death-knell of the conservative
doctrine of non-expansion beyond our own natural physical boundaries.
The only precedent approaching this act, in our history, is the
annexation of Texas. The Louisiana Territory, Florida, and Alaska were
acquired by purchase; California, New Mexico, and a part of Colorado
were obtained by cession from Mexico; Oregon, Washington, Montana, and
Idaho by treaty with Great Britain. Texas alone was annexed. The fact,
however, that it was a republic is the only circumstance which makes its
case analogous to that of Hawaii. Texas lay between two large nations,
and was obliged to seek union with one of them. It was within our own
continent and inhabited largely by our own people. Hawaii marks our
first advance into foreign lands, and ranges America for the first time
among the nations whose policy is that of expansion, by territorial
extensions, over the globe.

[Illustration: NATIVE GRASS HOUSE, HAWAII.]

Hawaii is called the "Paradise of the Pacific," and there is little
doubt that its climate, fertility and healthfulness justify the name.
It is one of the few spots upon earth where one can almost, to use a
slang phrase, "touch the button" and obtain any kind of weather he
desires. Mark Twain's suggestion to those who go to these islands to
find a congenial clime is about as practical as it is humorous--"Select
your climate, mark your thermometer at the temperature desired, and
climb until the mercury stops there." Everyone who visits Hawaii is
charmed with the country, and never forgets its novelty, stupendous and
delightful scenery, clear atmosphere, gorgeous sunlight, and profusion
of fruits and flowers.

"No alien land in all the world," writes Mr.



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