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Even the interior feels the soft, salt air from the ocean.
The people are kind-hearted, "easy-going," hospitable, and fond of
amusement. Every environment conduces to the dismission of all
worriment, to rest, sleep, and a happy-go-lucky state of mind.


OUR NEW POSSESSIONS (CONTINUED).

THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS.

"Most bounteous here in her sea-girt lands,
Nature stretches forth her hands,

* * * * *

And walks on gold and silver, and knows her power increased,
Nor fears the tyrant longer--'Our Lady of the East.'"--_Stoddard_.

The most important, and by far the most interesting, as well as the
least known of America's new possessions, gained by her war with Spain,
are the Philippine Islands. Comparatively few Americans have ever set
foot upon that far-away and semi-civilized land, the possession of which
enables America to say with England, "The sun never sets upon our flag."

[Illustration: FILIPINOS OF THE SAVAGE TRIBES.]

The Philippines lie almost exactly on the other side of the globe from
us. Approximately speaking, our noonday is their midnight; our sunset is
their sunrise. There are some 1,200 of these islands, 400 of which are
inhabited or capable of supporting a population; they cover about
125,000 square miles; they lie in the tropical seas, generally speaking,
from five to eighteen degrees north latitude, and are bounded by the
China Sea on the west and the Pacific Ocean on the east; they are about
7,000 miles southwest from San Francisco, a little over 600 southeast
from Hong Kong, China, and about 1,000 almost due north from Australia;
they contain between 5,000,000 and 8,000,000 inhabitants, about
one-third of whom had prior to Dewey's victory, May 1, 1898,
acknowledged Spanish sovereignty to the extent of paying regular tribute
to the Spanish crown; the remainder are bound together in tribes under
independent native princes or Mohammedan rulers. Perhaps 2,500,000 all
told have become nominal Catholics in religion. The rest are Mohammedans
and idolaters. There are no Protestant churches in the islands.

[Illustration: NATIVE HUNTERS, PHILIPPINE ISLANDS.]


THE STORY OF DISCOVERY.

[Illustration: THE ESCOLTA, LOOKING SOUTH.

This is the Broadway of Manila. Along this famous street the principal
retail shops of the city are situated. Chinese and half-castes are the
principal retail merchants. At the time of the capture of the city by
Admiral Dewey and General Merritt there were not over one dozen European
merchants in Manila. Not one American firm was there; the last one, a
Boston hemp dealer, having been driven out some years before.]

It was twenty-nine years after Columbus discovered America that Magellan
saw the Philippines, the largest archipelago in the world, in 1521. The
voyage of Magellan was much longer and scarcely less heroic than that of
the discoverer of America. Having been provided with a fleet by the
Spanish king with which to search for spice islands, but secretly
determined to sail round the world, he set out with five vessels on
August 10, 1519, crossed the Atlantic to America, and skirted the
eastern coast southward in the hope of finding some western passage into
the Pacific, which, a few years previous, had been discovered by Balboa.
It was a year and two months to a day from the time he left Spain until
he reached the southern point of the mainland of South America and
passed through the straight which has since borne his name. On the way,
one of his vessels deserted; another was wrecked in a storm. When he
passed through the Straight of Magellan he had remaining but three of
his original five ships, and they were the first European vessels that
ever breasted the waves of the mighty western ocean. Once upon the
unknown but placid sea--which he named the Pacific--the bold navigator
steered straight to the northwest. Five months later, about March
1st, he discovered the Ladrone Islands--which name Magellan gave to the
group on account of the thieving propensities of the natives--the word
_Ladrone_ meaning robber.

[Illustration: THE BEAUTIFUL LUNETA, MANILA's FASHIONABLE PROMENADE AND
DRIVE.

This most celebrated drive and promenade in the city of Manila is by the
old sea wall. The Governor and Archbishop, with their escorts and
striking equipages, came every afternoon to air themselves, and in the
cool of every summer evening, when the fine military band of the Spanish
army used to play. The whole population apparently came out to listen.
This was also the place of all great processions, executions, etc.]

After a short stay at the islands, he steered southwest, landing on the
north coast of Mindanao, the second largest island of the Philippines.
The natives were friendly and offered to pilot Magellan to the island of
Cebu, which lay to the north, and which they reported to be very rich.
After taking possession of Mindanao in the name of his king, the
discoverer proceeded to Cebu, where he made such demonstrations and gave
such descriptions of the glory and power of Spain that he easily formed
a treaty with the king of the island, who swore allegiance to his
new-found master and had himself and chief advisers baptized in the
Catholic faith. Magellan then joined the king in his war against some of
the neighboring powers, and on April 25, 1521, was killed in a skirmish.
The spot where he fell is now marked by a monument.


FIRST CIRCUMNAVIGATION OF THE GLOBE.

Trouble soon arose between Magellan's sailors and their new-found
allies. The Spaniards were invited to a banquet, and twenty-seven of
them were treacherously slain. The remainder, fearing for their lives,
escaped in their ships and sailed for home. It was soon discovered that
they had too few men to manage the three vessels, and one of them was
destroyed. The other two proceeded on their voyage and discovered the
spice island of Tidor, where they loaded with spices; but a few days
later one of the vessels sprang a leak and went down with her freight
and crew. The other, after many hardships, reached Spain, thus
completing the first circumnavigation of the globe.


SECOND EXPEDITION TO THE PHILIPPINES.

In 1555, Philip II. came to the Spanish throne and determined to send
another expedition to the East Indies. His religious zeal inspired him
to conquer and christianize the islands. To shorten the long and
dangerous voyage, he decided to prepare and start with five ships from
the coast of Mexico. Miguel Lopez de Legaspi led the expedition,
consisting of four hundred soldiers and sailors and six Augustine monks.
In due time the expedition landed at Cebu. The formidable appearance of
the ships awed the natives, and on April 27, 1565--forty years after
Magellan's remnant had fled from the island--Legaspi landed and took
possession. In honor of the Spanish king the archipelago was given the
name of the Philippine Islands.

In 1570 Legaspi sent his grandson, Salcedo, to subdue the island of
Luzon, the northernmost and the largest of the Philippine group. He
landed near the present site of Manila. The trustful natives readily
agreed to accept the Spanish king as their master, and to pay tribute.
Such slight tribal resistances as were offered were quickly subdued. The
next year Legaspi went to Manila to visit his grandson; and, seeing the
importance of the situation and its fine harbor, declared that city the
capital of the whole archipelago and the king of Spain the sovereign of
all the islands. Accordingly, he moved his headquarters to that point,
built houses and fortifications, and within a year had the city well
organized, when he died, leaving Salcedo as his successor in command. It
is remarkable how much these two men accomplished with so small a force;
but they did it not so much by arms as by cajoling and deceiving the
simple natives. Furthermore, they allowed the conquered people to be
governed by their own chiefs in their own way, so long as they paid a
liberal tribute to the Spanish crown.


STRUGGLES FOE SUPREMACY.

The history of the Philippines has been monotonous from their discovery
until the present, a monotony broken at times by periods of adventures
in which Manila has generally been the central scene. About 1580,
Lima-hong, a Chinese pirate, took the city with an armed fleet of
sixty-two vessels, bearing 4,000 men and 1,500 women. They met with
stubborn resistance, but succeeded in scaling the walls and entering the
city. The Spanish forces were driven into a fort, which the Chinese
stormed. A bloody hand-to-hand conflict followed, and the Chinese were
finally repulsed.

[Illustration: PHILIPPINE WARRIORS.]

Early in the seventeenth century the Dutch attempted to obtain
possession of the Philippines. They captured scores of Spanish
merchantmen and treasure ships. Many naval engagements followed, the
details of which read like the thrilling records of buccaneers and
pirates, rather than the wars between two civil powers. Finally, after
half a century of warfare, the Dutch were decisively beaten, and
abandoned their efforts to capture the Spanish islands, much to the
disadvantage of the Filipinos, for the islands of Java, Sumatra, and
other Dutch possessions to the south of the Philippines have been
remarkably prosperous under the mild rule of the Netherlands.


MANILA TAKEN BY THE ENGLISH.

In 1662, the Chinese planned a revolution against the Spanish
authorities. The governor heard of it, and a general massacre of the
Mongolians followed. It was even planned to destroy every Chinaman on
the islands, and they were in a fair way to do it, when, at length, the
Spaniards bethought themselves that by so doing they would practically
depopulate the islands of tradesmen and mechanics. Accordingly, they
offered pardon to those who would surrender and swear allegiance. A
century later, England sent a fleet under Admiral Cornish, with General
Draper commanding the troops, against Manila. After a desperate battle
the city fell, and the terms of surrender incorporated provisions for
free trade, freedom of speech, and, best of all, freedom in religion to
the inhabitants of the islands, and required Spain to pay England about
$4,000,000 indemnity.



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