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Accordingly, they
offered pardon to those who would surrender and swear allegiance. A
century later, England sent a fleet under Admiral Cornish, with General
Draper commanding the troops, against Manila. After a desperate battle
the city fell, and the terms of surrender incorporated provisions for
free trade, freedom of speech, and, best of all, freedom in religion to
the inhabitants of the islands, and required Spain to pay England about
$4,000,000 indemnity. By the Peace of Paris, in 1763, however, the war
between England and Spain was terminated, and one of the conditions was
that Spain should retain the sovereignty of the Philippines. The English
troops were withdrawn, and the unfortunate islands were again placed (as
Cuba was by the same treaty) under the domination of their tyrannical
mistress, and remained under Spanish rule from that time until the
Americans freed them in 1898.


UPRISINGS OF THE NATIVES.

In nearly all the uprisings of the natives, the tyranny of the church,
as conducted by the friars and priests, was the cause. Such was the case
in 1622, in 1649, and in 1660. The occasion of the revolt of 1744 is a
fair example of the provocations leading to all. A Jesuit priest ordered
all his parishioners arrested as criminals when they failed to attend
mass. One of the unfortunates died, and the priest denied him rights of
burial, ordering that his body be thrown upon the ground and left to rot
in the sun before his dwelling. The brother of the man in his
exasperation organized a mob, captured the priest, killed him, and
exposed his body for four days. Thus was formed the nucleus of a rebel
army. The insurgents in their mountain fastnesses gained their
independence and maintained it for thirty-five years, until they secured
from Spain a promise of the expulsion of the Jesuit priests from the
colony.

Other revolutions followed in 1823, 1827, and 1844, but all were
suppressed. In 1872, the most formidable outbreak up to that time
occurred at Cavite. Hatred of the Spanish friars was the cause of this
uprising also. Spain had promised in the Council of Trent to prohibit
friars from holding parishes. The promises were never carried out, and
the friars grew continually richer and more powerful and oppressive. Had
the plan of the insurgents not been balked by a mistaken signal, no
doubt they would have destroyed the Spanish garrison at Manila, but a
misunderstanding caused their defeat. The friars insisted that the
captured leaders should be executed, and it was done.

[Illustration: A NATIVE RESIDENCE IN THE SUBURBS OF MANILA.

Every cottage, however humble, is surrounded by tropical trees and
flowers. The interiors are remarkably clean and cheerful. Bamboo enters
largely into the construction of all native houses and they are
generally covered with thatch.]


THE LAST STRUGGLE FOR LIBERTY.

In 1896, the insurrection broke out again. Its causes were the old
oppressions: unbearable taxes, and imprisonment or banishment, with the
complete confiscation of property of those who could not pay; no justice
except for those who could buy it; extortion by the friars; marriage
ceremony so costly that a poor man could not pay the fee; homes and
families broken up and ruined; burial refused to the dead, unless a
large sum was paid in advance; no provision and no chance for education.
Such were some of the causes that again goaded the natives to revolution
and nerved them with courage to achieve victory after victory over their
enemies until they were, promised most of the reforms which they
demanded. Then they laid down their arms, and, as usual, the
Governor-General failed to carry out a single pledge.

Such was the condition, and another revolt, more formidable than any of
the past, was forming, when Commodore Dewey with his American fleet
entered Manila Bay, May 1, 1898, and, by a victory unparalleled in naval
warfare, sunk the Spanish ships, silenced the forts, and dethroned the
power of Spain forever in a land which her tyranny had blighted for more
than three hundred years.


THE PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS: THEIR MANNERS AND CUSTOMS.

It is impossible within the scope of this article to give details
concerning all the inhabitants of this far-away archipelago. Professor
Worcester, of the University of Michigan, tells us that the population
comprises more than eighty distinct tribes, with individual
peculiarities. They are scattered over hundreds of islands, and one who
really wants to know these peoples must leave cities and towns far
behind, and, at the risk of his life, through pathless forests, amid
volcanic mountains, at the mercy of savages, penetrate to the innermost
wilds. Notwithstanding the fact that for hundreds of years bold men, led
by the love of science or by the spirit of adventure, have continued to
penetrate these dark regions, there are many sections where the foot of
civilized man has never trod; or, if so, he came not back to tell of the
lands and peoples which his eyes beheld.


DIFFICULTIES OF EXPLORING THE COUNTRY.

There have been great obstacles in the way of a thorough exploration of
these islands. Spain persistently opposed the representatives of any
other nation entering the country. She suspected every man with a gun of
designing to raise an insurrection or make mischief among the natives.
The account of red tape necessary to secure guns and ammunition for a
little party of four or five explorers admitted through the customs at
Manila is one of the most significant, as well as one of the most
humorous, passages in Professor Worcester's story of his several years'
sojourn while exploring the archipelago.

In the second place, the savage tribes in the interior had no respect
for Spain's authority, and will have none for ours for years to come.
Two-thirds of them paid no tribute, and many of them never heard of
Spain, or, if so, only remembered that a long time ago white men came
and cruelly persecuted the natives along the shore. These wild tribes
think themselves still the owners of the land. Some of them go naked and
practice cannibalism and other horrible savage customs. Any explorer's
life is in danger among them; consequently most tourists to the
Philippines see Manila and make short excursions around that city. The
more ambitious run down to the cities of Iloilo and Cebu, making short
excursions into the country from those points, and then return, thinking
they have seen the Philippines. Nothing could be further from the truth.
Such travelers no more see the Philippine Islands than Columbus explored
America.

[Illustration: A TYPICAL MORO VILLAGE, SOUTHERN PHILIPPINE ISLANDS.]

Even near the coast there are savages who are almost as ignorant as
their brethren in the interior. Mr. Stevens tells us that only "thirty
miles from Manila is a race of dwarfs that go without clothes, wear
knee-bracelets of horsehair, and respect nothing but the jungle in which
they live." The principal native peoples are of Malayan origin. Of
these, to the north of Manila are the Igorrotes; in the islands south of
Luzon are the civilized Visayas, and below them in Mindanao and the Sulu
Archipelago are the fierce Moros, who originally came from the island of
Borneo, settling in the Philippines a short time before the Spanish
discovery. They are Mohammedans in religion, and as fanatical and as
fearless fighters as the Turks themselves. For three hundred years the
Spaniards have been fighting these savages, and while they have overcome
them in nearly all the coast towns, they have expended, it is said,
upward of $100,000,000 and sacrificed more than one hundred thousand
lives in doing so.


THE WARLIKE MOROS.

The fierce Moro warriors keep the Spanish settlers along their coasts in
a constant state of alarm, and the visitor to the towns feels as if he
were at an Indian outpost in early American history, because of the
constant state of apprehension that prevails. Fortunately, however, the
Moros along the coast have learned to distinguish between the Spaniard
and the Englishman or American, and through them the generosity of the
_Englese_, as they call all Anglo-Saxons, has spread to their brethren
in the interior. Therefore, American and English explorers have been
enabled to go into sections where the Spanish friars and monks, who have
been practically the only Spanish explorers, would meet with certain
death. The Mohammedan fanaticism of the Moros, and that of the Catholic
friars and Jesuits, absolutely refuse compromise.

The Negritos (little Negroes) and the Mangyans are the principal
representatives of the aboriginal inhabitants before the Malayan tribes
came. There are supposed to be, collectively, about 1,000,000 of them,
and they are almost as destitute of clothing and as uncivilized as the
savages whom Columbus found in America, and far more degenerate and
loathsome in habits.


THE CITY OF MANILA.

The Island of Luzon, on which the city of Manila stands, is about as
large as the State of New York, its area being variously estimated at
from 43,000 to 47,000 square smiles. It is the largest island in the
Philippine group, comprising perhaps one-third of the area of the entire
archipelago. Its inhabitants are the most civilized, and its territory
the most thoroughly explored. The city of Manila is the metropolis of
the Philippines. The population of the city proper and its environs is
considered to be some 300,000 souls, of whom 200,000 are natives, 40,000
full-blooded Chinese, 50,000 Chinese half-castes, 5,000 Spanish, mostly
soldiers, 4,000 Spanish half-castes, and 300 white foreigners other than
Spaniards. Mr. Joseph Earle Stevens, already referred to, who
represented the only American firm in the city of Manila, under Spanish
rule (which finally had to turn its business over to the English and
leave the island a few years since), informs us that he and three others
were the only representatives of the United States in Manila as late as
1893.

The city is built on a beautiful bay from twenty-five to thirty miles
across, and on both shores of the Pasig River.



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