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A reproof in church was considered the most
disgraceful penalty that could be visited upon a wrong-doer. The sermons
were two, three, and sometimes four hours long, and the business of one
of the officers was to watch those overcome by drowsiness and wake them
up, sometimes quite sharply.

[Illustration: KING PHILIP'S WAR--DEATH OF THE KING.]

RELIGIOUS PERSECUTION.

Roger Williams, a Baptist preacher, told the Puritans, as the people
came generally to be called, that they did wrong to take the land from
the Indians without paying for it, and that a person was answerable to
God alone for his belief. These charges were answered by the banishment
of Williams from the colony. All the Baptists were expelled in 1635.
Shortly afterward, Anne Hutchinson boldly preached the doctrine of
Antinomianism, which declares that a man is not saved by the help of
good works, but by divine grace alone. In other words, no matter how
wickedly he lives, his salvation is wholly independent of it. She went
to Rhode Island and afterward to New Netherland, where she was killed in
one of the attacks of the Indians upon the Dutch settlements.

[Illustration: ROGER WILLIAMS IN BANISHMENT.]

The Quakers greatly annoyed the New England colonists. They persisted in
rising in the Puritan meetings and disputing with ministers. Many were
fined, whipped, imprisoned, and banished, but in the face of warnings
they returned. As a consequence, four were put to death. Then a reaction
set in and the persecution ceased.

The most formidable war in which the early colonies of New England were
involved was with King Philip, who was the son of Massasoit, a firm
friend of the settlers until his death. Philip was one of the great
Indians of history. Like many of his people he saw with anger the growth
of the white men, who in time would drive him and his warriors from
their hunting grounds. Realizing the magnitude of the work of
exterminating all the settlers, he visited the different tribes and used
every effort to unite them in a war against the invaders. He was partly
successful, and, with the allies secured, King Philip began the war by
attacking a party of settlers at Swansea, on Sunday, June 24, 1675,
while they were on their way to church. Several whites were killed, when
the Indians hurried off to the Connecticut Valley to continue their
dreadful work.

All understood their peril, and flew to arms. Every man carried his
musket to church, and they were stacked outside the door, while a
sentinel paced up and down. More than once the long sermon was
interrupted by the crack of the red men's guns and their wild whoops, as
they swarmed out of the woods. Springing down from the pulpit, the
minister was among the foremost in beating the heathen back, and, when
quiet was restored, probably he resumed and finished his sermon.

The war was prosecuted furiously on both sides. In the depth of winter,
when the snow lay several feet on the ground, John Winslow led 1,500 men
against the Narragansett stronghold, which was in the heart of a great
swamp, and was one of the most powerful fortifications ever erected by
the red men on this continent. In the terrible fight, 200 white men and
nearly 1,000 Indians were killed. Finally, Philip was run down in a
swamp near his old home on Mount Hope, not far from the present city of
Bristol, Rhode Island. While stealing out of his hiding-place, he was
confronted by a white soldier and a friendly Indian. The gun of the
former missed fire, whereupon the Indian leveled his musket and shot the
Wampanoag leader dead. The war ended a few months later. During its
continuance, six hundred white men were killed and many more wounded;
thirteen towns were destroyed and five hundred buildings burned, but the
Indian power in southern New England was shattered forever.


THE WITCHCRAFT DELUSION.

One of the most fearful delusions recorded in history is that of the
general belief in witchcraft which prevailed in Europe down to the
seventeenth century. Its baleful shadow all too soon fell upon New
England. Massachusetts and Connecticut made laws against witchcraft and
hanged a number of persons on the charge of being witches. In 1692 the
town of Salem went crazy over the belief that the diabolical spirits
were at work among them. Two little girls, who were simpletons that
ought to have been spanked and put to bed, declared with bulging eyes
that different persons had taken the form of a black cat and pinched,
scratched, and bitten them. The people, including the great preacher
Cotton Mather, believed this stuff, and the supposed wizards and witches
were punished with fearful severity. Suspicion in many cases meant
death; evil men disposed of their creditors and enemies by charging them
with witchcraft; families were divided and the gentlest and most
irreproachable of women suffered disgraceful death. Everybody, including
ministers and judges, lost their wits. The magistrates crowded the
jails, until twenty had been put to death and fifty-five tortured before
the craze subsided. Then it became clear that no one, no matter what his
station, was safe, and the delusion, which forms one of the blackest
pages in New England, passed away.

[Illustration: GALLUP'S RECAPTURE OF OLDHAM'S BOAT

Which had been taken by the Indians from the Puritan exiles in 1636.
"Steer straight for the vessel," cried Gallup, and stationing himself at
the bow he opened fire on the Indians. Every time his gun flashed some
one was hit. This incident was the beginning of the Pequot War.]

SETTLEMENT OF MAINE AND NEW HAMPSHIRE.

New Hampshire was the name of John Mason's share of a territory granted
to him and Sir Fernando Gorges by the Council of Plymouth in 1622. This
grant included all the land between the Merrimac and Kennebec Rivers.
The first settlement was made in 1623, at New and at Little Harbor, near
Portsmouth. In 1629 the proprietors divided their grants, the country
west of the Piscataqua being taken by Mason, who named it New Hampshire,
while Gorges, who owned the eastern section, called it Maine.

The settlements were weak and their growth tardy. In 1641 New Hampshire
placed itself under the protection of Massachusetts, but the king
separated them in 1679, and made New Hampshire a royal colony. In 1688
it again joined Massachusetts, and three years later was set off once
more by the king, after which it remained a royal colony until the
Revolution.


THE CONNECTICUT COLONY.

The Connecticut colony included all of the present State of Connecticut,
excepting a few townships on the shore of Long Island Sound. It came
into the possession of the Earl of Warwick in 1630, and the following
year he transferred it to Lords Say, Brooke, and others. The Dutch
claimed the territory and erected a fort on the Connecticut River to
keep out the English. The latter, however, paid no attention to them,
and a number of Massachusetts traders settled at Windsor in 1633.
Saybrook, at the mouth of the Connecticut, was settled in 1635. A great
many emigrants came from Massachusetts in 1636, the principal leader
being Thomas Hooker. They founded Weathersfield, Windsor, and Hartford,
and in 1639 adopted the name of the Connecticut colony and drew up a
written constitution, the first ever framed by a body of men for their
own government. Other settlements were made and Saybrook united with
them.

The most eventful incident in the history of Connecticut was the war
with the Pequot Indians, who were a powerful tribe in the eastern part
of the State. They tried to persuade the Narragansetts to join them, but
Roger Williams, who lived among them, persuaded Canonicus, their chief,
to refuse. Then the Pequots committed the fatal mistake of going to war
alone. The settlers, fully roused to their danger, assailed the Pequot
stronghold with fury, one summer morning in 1637, and killed all their
enemies, sparing neither women nor children. Thus a leading tribe of
Indians were blotted out in one day.


THE NEW HAVEN COLONY.

The New Haven colony comprised the townships already referred to as
lying on Long Island Sound. It was settled in 1638 by a company of
English immigrants, who were sufficiently wise and just to buy the lands
of the Indians. Other towns were settled, and in 1639 the group took the
name of the New Haven colony. Neither of the colonies had a charter, and
there was much rivalry in the efforts to absorb the towns as they were
settled. The majority preferred to join the Connecticut colony, for the
other, like Massachusetts, would permit no one not a member of church to
vote or hold office.

[Illustration: PRIMITIVE MODE OF GRINDING CORN.]


THE COLONY OF CONNECTICUT.

What is known in the history of England as the Commonwealth,
established by Cromwell, came to an end in 1660. Charles II. ascended
the throne, and Winthrop, governor of the Connecticut colony, which had
now grown to be the stronger of the two, went to England to secure a
charter. It was granted to him in 1662, and covered the territory
occupied by both colonies, who were permitted to elect their assembly,
their governor, and to rule themselves. New Haven, after deliberating
over the question, reluctantly accepted the charter, and in 1665 the two
were united under the name of the Colony of Connecticut.

Everything was going along smoothly, when, in 1687, Governor Andros came
down with a company of soldiers from Boston and ordered the people to
surrender their charter. He was acting under the orders of the king, who
did not fancy the independence with which the colony was conducting
matters. Andros confronted the assembly, which were called together in
Hartford. They begged that he would not enforce his demands. He
consented to listen to their arguments, though there was not the
slightest probability of it producing any effect upon him.


THE CHARTER OAK.

The talk continued until dark, when the candles were lighted. Suddenly,
at a signal, all were blown out. When they were re-lighted, the charter,
which had been lying on the table in plain sight, was nowhere to be
found.



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