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They are of a volcanic
origin, and may be described in general as rugged and mountainous. The
coasts of most of the islands are deeply indented by the sea, and the
larger ones are well watered by streams, the mouths of which afford good
harbors. Many of the mountainous parts abound in minerals. Mr. Karuph,
President of the Philippine Mineral Syndicate, in May, 1898, addressed a
letter to Hon. John Hay, at that time our ambassador to England, in
which he declares that the Philippines will soon come prominently
forward as a new center of the world's gold production. "There is not a
brook," says Mr. Karuph, "that finds its way into the Pacific Ocean
whose sands and gravel do not pan the color of gold. Many valuable
deposits are close to deep water. I know of no other part of the world,
the Alaskan Treadwell mines alone excepted, where pay ore is found
within a few hundred yards of the anchorage of sea-going vessels." In
addition to gold, iron, copper, lead, sulphur, and other minerals are
found, and are believed to exist in paying quantities. The numerous
mineral springs attest their presence in almost every part of the
principal islands.

[Illustration: DRYING SUGAR.

Large pans containing the sugar are set in the sun to evaporate the
moisture. No refining or clarifying machinery has been introduced into
the Philippine Islands.]


FORESTS AND TIMBER.

The forest products of the islands are perhaps of greater value than
their mineral resources. Timber not only exists in almost exhaustless
quantity, but--considering the whole group, which extends nearly a
thousand miles from north to south--in unprecedented diversity,
embracing sixty varieties of the most valuable woods, several of which
are so hard that they cannot be cut with ordinary saws, some so heavy
that they sink in water, and two or three so durable as to afford ground
for the claim that they outlast iron and steel when placed in the
ground or under water. Several of these woods are unknown elsewhere,
and, altogether, they are admirably suited for various decorative
purposes and for the manufacture of fine implements and furniture.

[Illustration: THE STRANGE WAGONS OF ALBAY.

The eighty-odd different tribes who inhabit the Philippines have varying
dialects, manners, and customs. The peculiar house-roofed wagons, shown
in the above illustration, are found in only one locality.]

Here also are pepper, cinnamon, wax, and gums of various sorts, cloves,
tea, and vanilla, while all tropical fruits, such as cocoanuts, bananas,
lemons, limes, oranges of several varieties, pineapples, citrons,
bread-fruits, custard apples, pawpaws, and mangroves nourish, and most
of them grow wild, though, of course, they are not equal to the
cultivated fruit. There are fifty-odd varieties of the banana in the
archipelago, from the midget, which makes but a single mouthful, to the
huge fruit eighteen inches long. There seems to be no limit to which
tropical fruits and farm products can be cultivated.

The animal and bird life of the Philippines offer a field of interesting
research to naturalists. There are no important carnivorous animals. A
small wild-cat and two species of civet-cats constitute about all that
belong to that class. The house-cats of the Philippines have curious
fish-hook crooks in the ends of their tails. There are several species
of deer in the archipelago. Hogs run wild in large numbers. The large
water buffalo (_carabao_) has been domesticated and is the chief beast
of burden with the natives. The _timarau_ is another small species of
buffalo, very wild and entirely untamable; and, though numerous in
certain places, is hard to find, and when brought to bay dies fighting.

Birds abound in all of the islands; nearly six hundred species have been
found, over fifty of which exist nowhere else in the world. One of these
species builds a nest which is highly prized by Chinese epicures as an
article of diet. Prof. Worcester tells us "the best quality of them
sometimes bring more than their weight in gold." Crocodiles are numerous
in fresh-water lakes and streams, attaining enormous size, and in
certain places causing much loss of life among stock and men as well.
Snakes also abound, and some of them are very venomous. Cobras are found
in the southern islands. Pythons are numerous, some of the smaller sizes
being sold in the towns and kept in houses to catch rats, at which they
are said to be more expert than house-cats.

All the domestic animals, aside from the _carabao_, have been introduced
from abroad. Cattle are extensively raised, and in some of the islands
run wild. The horses are a small Spanish breed, but are very strong and
have great endurance. Large European horses do not stand the climate
well.


CLIMATE, VOLCANOES, ETC.

The mean annual temperature of Manila is 80 F. The thermometer seldom
rises above 100 or falls below 60 anywhere in the archipelago. There
is no month in the year during which it does not rise as high as 91.
January and December are the coldest months, the average temperature
being 70 to 73. May is the warmest, the average being 84. April is
the next warmest, with an average of 83; but the weather is generally
very moist and humid, which makes the heat more trying. The three winter
months have cool nights. Malaria is prevalent, but contagious diseases
are comparatively few. Yellow fever and cholera are seldom heard of.

The Philippines are the home of many volcanoes, a number of them still
active. Mayon, in the island of Luzon, is one of the most remarkable
volcanic mountains on the globe. It is a perfect cone, rising to the
height of 8,900 feet, and is in constant activity; its latest
destructive eruption took place in 1888. Apo, in the island of Mindanao,
10,312 feet high, is the largest of the Philippine volcanoes. Next is
Canloon in Negros, which rises 8,192 feet above the sea. Taal is in a
lake, with a height of 900 feet, and is noteworthy as being the lowest
volcano in the world. To those not accustomed to volcanoes, these great
fire-spouting mountains, which are but prominent representatives of many
lesser ones in the islands, seem to be an ever-present danger to the
inhabitants; but the natives and those who live there manifest little or
no fear of them. In fact, they rather pride themselves in their
possession of such terrifying neighbors.

Such is an outline view of the Philippine Archipelago of the present
day. A new era has opened up in the history of that wonderful land with
its liberation from the Spanish yoke. The dense ignorance and
semi-savage barbarities which exist there must not be expected to yield
too rapidly to the touch of human kindness and brotherly love with which
the Christian world will now visit those semi-civilized and untamed
children of nature. Nevertheless, western civilization and western
progress will undoubtedly work mighty changes in the lives of those
people, in the development of that country, during the first quarter of
the twentieth century, which ushers in the dawn of its freedom.


THE BATTLE OF MANILA.

In all the annals of naval warfare there is no engagement, terminating
in so signal a victory with so little damage to the victors, as that
which made the name of George Dewey immortal on the memorable Sunday
morning of May 1, 1898, in Manila Bay. The world knows the story of that
battle, for it has been told hundreds of times in the thousands of
newspapers and magazines and scores of books throughout the civilized
world. But few, perhaps, who peruse these pages have read the simple
details of the fight as narrated by that most modest of men, Admiral
Dewey himself. We cannot better close this chapter on the Philippines
than by inserting Admiral Dewey's official report of the battle which
wrested the Filipinos from Spanish tyranny and placed nearly ten
millions of oppressed people under the protecting care of the United
States.

[Illustration: YOUNG MAN OF THE UPPER CLASS.

White duck or crash trousers and a silk or pina shirt make a fashionable
suit.]

[Illustration: AGUINALDO AT THE AGE OF 22.

Dressed in fine pina cloth shirt.]

[Illustration: DOING THE FAMILY WASH.

The glory of all Philippine women is their long and beautiful hair.]

[Illustration: NATIVE WOMAN FRUIT SELLER.

And customers, Manila.]


ADMIRAL DEWEY'S STORY OF MANILA.

"UNITED STATES FLAGSHIP OLYMPIA, CAVITE, May 4, 1898.

"The squadron left Mirs Bay on April 27th, arrived off Bolinao on the
morning of April 30th, and, finding no vessels there, proceeded down
the coast and arrived off the entrance to Manila Bay on the same
afternoon. The Boston and the Concord were sent to reconnoitre Port
Subic. A thorough search was made of the port by the Boston and the
Concord, but the Spanish fleet was not found. Entered the south
channel at 11:30 P.M., steaming in column at eight knots. After half
the squadron had passed, a battery on the south side of the channel
opened fire, none of the shots taking effect. The Boston and
McCulloch returned the fire. The squadron proceeded across the bay at
slow speed and arrived off Manila at daybreak, and was fired upon at
5:15 A.M. by three batteries at Manila and two near Cavite, and by
the Spanish fleet anchored in an approximately east and west line
across the mouth of Bakor Bay, with their left in shoal water in
Canacao Bay.

"The squadron then proceeded to the attack, the flagship Olympia,
under my personal direction, leading, followed at a distance by the
Baltimore, Raleigh, Petrel, Concord, and Boston in the order named,
which formation was maintained throughout the action. The squadron
opened fire at 5:41 A.M. While advancing to the attack two mines were
exploded ahead of the flagship, too far to be effective. The squadron
maintained a continuous and precise fire at ranges varying from 5,000
to 2,000 yards, countermarching in a line approximately parallel to
that of the Spanish fleet. The enemy's fire was vigorous, but
generally ineffective. Early in the engagement two launches put out
toward the Olympia with the apparent intention of using torpedoes.
One was sunk and the other disabled by our fire and beached before
they were able to fire their torpedoes.

"At seven A.M.



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