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The governor and his
soldiers were carried to Manila as prisoners, and an American garrison
of a few men left to take charge of this new American territory in the
Pacific.


CONCLUSION.

Thus at the close of the nineteenth century, the Greater United States
assumes its appointed place among the foremost nations of the world, and
stands on the threshold of achievements whose grandeur no man dare
attempt to prophesy. We pause, awed, grateful, and profoundly impressed,
when we recall the mighty events, the amazing progress, and the
wonderful advancements in discovery, science, art, literature, and all
that tends to the good of mankind that are certain to give the twentieth
century a pre-eminence above all the years that have gone before.

The new era of our country has opened. The United States enters on the
first stage of the transformation from an isolated commonwealth into an
outreaching power with dependencies in both hemispheres. We can no
longer hold an attitude of aloofness from the rest of the world. With
vulnerable points in our outlying possessions, we must make ready to
defend them not only by force of arms but by diplomatic skill.
Entangling alliances as heretofore will be avoided, and the conditions,
complications, and policies of foreign powers must in the future possess
a practical importance for us.

The original thirteen States have expanded into forty-five, embracing
the vast area between the two oceans and extending from the British
possessions to the Gulf of Mexico. To them has now been added our
colonial territory, so vast in extent that, like the British Empire, the
sun never sets on our dominions. Where a hundred years ago were only a
few scattered villages and towns, imperial cities now raise their heads.
Thousands of square miles of forest and solitude have given place to
cultivated farms, to factories, and workshops that hum with the wheels
of industry. The Patent Office issues 40,000 patents each year. We have
three cities with more than a million population apiece, and twenty-five
with a population ranging from a hundred thousand to half a million.
Greater New York is the second city in the world, and, if its present
rate of growth continues, it will surpass London before the middle of
the coming century. Our population has grown from 3,000,000 at the close
of the Revolution to 75,000,000. When Andrew Jackson became President
there was not a mile of railroad in the United States. To-day our
mileage exceeds that of all the countries of Europe, Asia, and Africa
combined, and the employes, connected directly or indirectly with
railroads in the United States, number almost a million persons. The
half-dozen crude newspapers of the Revolution have expanded into more
than 20,000, whose daily news is gathered from every quarter of the
globe. The total yearly issue is more than three billions.

No country can approach the advancements we have made in invention, in
discovery, in science, in art, in education and in all the civilizing
agencies of mankind. Volumes would be required to name our achievements
in these lines. Our material property has been or is equally wonderful.
When the Civil War closed, our public debt was nearly $3,000,000,000. On
December 1, 1898, it was $1,036,000,000. Most of the leading nations
have great debts, but the United States is the only one which is
steadily decreasing its debt and at the same time enormously increasing
its resources. The debt of Great Britain is now about $87 per capita,
that of France $115, of Holland $100, of Italy $75, and of the United
States less than $15, with the security increasing all the time.

Let the thoughtful reader note these striking facts. European nations
generally, and some South American nations also, have been compelled to
resort to various methods of taxation to supply the sums needed for
ordinary governmental expenses, to meet the interest on the existing
debt, to provide resources for new expenditures, buildings, armament,
subsidies, and various public works. England has an income tax and many
stamp taxes, a house tax, and collects some 20 per cent. of its revenue
from direct taxation. France has a tobacco monopoly, registration taxes,
stamp taxes, tax on windows, and innumerable local taxes, one being the
octroi, or tax on goods entering cities. In addition to an income tax,
and many stamp taxes, Austria derives a good deal of its public revenue
from lotteries. Italy goes still further with her tobacco monopoly,
house tax, income tax, salt tax, octroi duties, stamp taxes, and heavy
legacy and registration taxes. In the United States, however, the public
revenues have been provided for and all public expenses met, and the
national debt reduced beside, without recourse to any direct taxation.
We have no government monopolies, and the Treasury maintains a healthful
condition from the receipts of customs and internal revenue payments.

Thus with the spirit of fraternity between all sections of the Union
stronger than ever before, with the spirit of patriotism more deeply
imbedded and all-pervading, with our moral, educational, and material
prosperity and progress greater than any time in our past history, and
never equaled by any nation, since the annals of mankind began--we face
the future, bravely resolved to meet all requirements, responsibilities,
and duties as become men whose motto is


IN GOD IS OUR TRUST.


_The End._



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