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William Penn was the son of Admiral Penn,
who disliked the Quakers and had been a valiant officer for the English
government. When he died, the crown owed him a large sum of money, which
William offered to liquidate in return for a grant of the land now known
as the State of Pennsylvania. The king willingly agreed to this, and the
Duke of York, who had a strong liking for Penn, added the present State
of Delaware to the grant, in which, as has been stated, the Swedes had
made a number of settlements.

William Penn was one of the best and wisest rulers that had to do with
the settlement of our country. The king, more as a piece of pleasantry
than otherwise, insisted upon naming the province "Pennsylvania," in
honor of the proprietor, much to the good man's dismay. He offered the
royal secretary a liberal fee to omit the first part of the name from
the charter, but it was not done. No rule could have been more kindly.
Absolute freedom of conscience was permitted; in all trials by jury of
an Indian, one-half of the jury were to be composed of Indians, and,
although Penn was induced to permit the punishment of death for treason
and murder, to be provided for in the code, no man was ever executed
while Penn had anything to do with the province.

His first act, after his arrival in 1682, was characteristic. He called
the Indian chiefs together, under a great spreading elm at Shackamaxon,
and paid them for the land that was already his by royal grant. In
addition, he made the red men many presents and signed a treaty, which
neither party broke for sixty years. It has been truly said that this
was the only treaty not sworn to which was kept inviolate by both
parties.

Penn himself laid out the city of Philadelphia in 1683. A year later, it
had a population of 7,000, and in three years more its population
increased faster than that of New York in half a century. Delaware, then
called the "Three Lower Counties," was given a separate government at
the request of the people in 1703. They were allowed their own deputy
governor, but Pennsylvania and Delaware continued substantially under
one government until the Revolution.

The good ruler met with many misfortunes. In 1692, the province was
taken from him, because of his friendship to James II., but restored
soon afterward. In 1699, when he made his second visit, he found the
people had in a great measure grown away from him, and were unwilling
that he should exercise his former supervision. While absent, a
dishonest steward robbed him of nearly all his property in England; and,
failing in health and mind, he died in 1718. His sons became
proprietors, but the people grew more and more discontented with the
payment of rents. To end the disputes and quarrels, the State abolished
the rents during the Revolution, paying the proprietors the sum of
$650,000 for the extinguishment of their rights.


PHILADELPHIA.

Philadelphia was prosperous from the first. New York City did not catch
up to it until after the year 1810. It was early noted, as it has been
since, for its cleanliness, fine buildings, and the attention it gave to
education. It had a printing press in 1686, and three years later a
public high school. In the year 1749, the present University of
Pennsylvania was founded as a school, becoming a college in 1755, and a
university in 1779. Many of the names of streets, such as Walnut,
Chestnut, Pine, Mulberry, and others, were given to it when the city was
laid out.

[Illustration: MORAVIAN EASTER SERVICE, BETHLEHEM, PENNSYLVANIA.]

The settlement of the province was confined for a long time to the
eastern section. No population was more varied. The Scotch and Irish
were mainly in the central portion, the Dutch and Germans in the east
and northeast, and the English in the southeastern part of the colony.
There are hundreds of people to-day in Pennsylvania, whose ancestors for
several generations have been born there, who are unable to speak or
understand a word of English.

Maryland is the next colony in order of settlement. The Roman Catholics
were among those who suffered persecution in England, and Maryland was
founded as a place of refuge for them. Among the most prominent of the
English Catholics was Sir George Calvert, known as Lord Baltimore. His
first attempt to found a colony was in Newfoundland, but the rigorous
climate compelled him to give it up. He decided that the most favorable
place was that portion of Virginia lying east of the Potomac. Virginia
had its eye already upon the section, and was preparing to settle it,
when Charles I., without consulting her, granted the territory to Lord
Baltimore. Before he could use the patent, he died, and the charter was
made to his son, Cecil Calvert, in 1632. He named it Maryland in
compliment to the queen, Henrietta Maria.

Leonard Calvert, a brother of Lord Baltimore, began the settlement of
Maryland at St. Mary's, near the mouth of the Potomac. He took with him
200 immigrants and made friends with the Indians, whom he treated with
justice and kindness. Annapolis was founded in 1683 and Baltimore in
1729.

Despite the wisdom and liberality of Calvert's rule, the colony met with
much trouble, because of Virginia's claim to the territory occupied by
the newcomers. William Clayborne of Virginia had established a trading
post in Maryland and refused to leave, but he was driven out, whereupon
he appealed to the king, insisting that the Catholics were intruders
upon domain to which they had no right. The king decided in favor of
Lord Baltimore. Clayborne however, would not assent, and, returning to
Maryland in 1645, he incited a rebellion which was pressed so vigorously
that Calvert was forced to flee. He gathered enough followers to drive
Clayborne out in turn. The Catholics then established a liberal
government and passed the famous "Toleration Act," which allowed
everybody to worship God as he saw fit. Many persons in the other
colonies, who were suffering persecution, made their homes in Maryland.

After a time, the Protestants gained a majority in the assembly and made
laws which were very oppressive to the Catholics. The strife degenerated
into civil war, which lasted for a number of years. The proprietor in
1691 was a supporter of James II., because of which the new king,
William, took away his colony and appointed the governors himself. The
proprietor's rights were restored in 1716 to the fourth Lord Baltimore.
The Calverts became extinct in 1771, and the people of Maryland assumed
proprietorship five years later. Comparative tranquillity reigned until
the breaking out of the Revolution.

An interesting occurrence during this tranquil period was the arrival
from England of George Fox, the founder of the Society of Friends or
Quakers. In the assemblage which gathered on the shores of the
Chesapeake to listen to his preaching were members of the Legislature,
the leading men of the province, Indian sachems and their families, with
their great chief at their head.

The disputed boundary between Maryland and Pennsylvania was fixed in
1767, by two surveyors named Mason and Dixon. This boundary became
famous in after years as the dividing line between the free and slave
States.

Charles II., in 1663 and 1665, granted the land between Florida and
Virginia to eight proprietors. The country had been named Carolina in
honor of their king, Charles IX. (Latin, _Carolus_), and since Charles
II. was King of England the name was retained, though he was not the
ruler meant thus to be honored. The country was comparatively
uninhabited after the failure of the French colony, except by a few
Virginians, who made a settlement on the northern shore of Albemarle
Sound.


THE CAROLINAS.

For twenty years the proprietors tried to establish upon American soil
one of the most absurd forms of government ever conceived. The land was
to be granted to nobles, known as barons, landgraves, and caziques,
while the rest of the people were not to be allowed to hold any land,
but were to be bought and sold with the soil, like so many cattle. The
settlers ridiculed and defied the fantastical scheme, which had to be
abandoned. It was the work of John Locke, the famous philosopher, who at
one time was secretary of Lord Cooper, one of the proprietors.

The first settlement of the Carteret colony was made in 1670, on the
banks of the Ashley, but in 1680 it was removed to the present site of
Charleston. The colonies remained united for about seventy years, when
it became apparent that the territory was too large to be well governed
by one assembly and a single governor. In 1729, the present division was
made, and the rights of government and seven-eighths of the land were
returned to the crown.

The soil and climate were so favorable that thousands of immigrants were
attracted thither. Among them were numerous Huguenots or French
Protestants, whose intelligence, thrift, and morality placed them among
the very best settlers found anywhere in our country. Newbern was
settled by a colony of Swiss in 1711, and there was a large influx of
Scotch after their rebellion of 1740, England giving them permission to
leave Scotland. Scotch immigrants settled Fayetteville in 1746.

There were occasional troubles with the Indians, the most important of
which was the war with the Tuscaroras, in 1711. This tribe was utterly
defeated and driven northward into New York, where they joined the
Iroquois or Five Nations. The union of the Tuscaroras caused the
Iroquois to be known afterward as the Six Nations.

The Carolinas were afflicted with some of the worst governors
conceivable, interspersed now and then with excellent ones. Often there
was sturdy resistance, and in 1677 one of the governors, who attempted
to enforce the Navigation Act, was deposed and imprisoned. In 1688,
another was driven out of the colony. The population was widely
scattered, but the people themselves were as a whole the best kind of
citizens. They would not permit religious persecution, and defeated the
effort to make the Church of England the colony church. As a
consequence, the Carolinas became, like Maryland and Pennsylvania, a
refuge for thousands of those who were persecuted in the name of
religion.


GEORGIA.

Georgia was the last of the thirteen original colonies to be settled,
and, though it long remained the weakest of them all, its history is
very interesting.



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