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THE WAR OF 1812.

James Madison--The Embargo and the Non-Intercourse Acts--Revival
of the Latter Against England--The _Little Belt_ and the
_President_--Population of the United States in 1810--Battle of
Tippecanoe--Declaration of War Against England--Comparative
Strength of the Two Nations on the Ocean--Unpopularity of the War
in New England--Preparations Made by the Government--Cowardly
Surrender of Detroit--Presidential Election of 1812--Admission of
Louisiana and Indiana--New National Bank Chartered--Second
Attempt to Invade Canada--Battle of Queenstown Heights--Inefficiency
of the American Forces in 1812--Brilliant Work of the Navy--The
_Constitution_ and the _Guerrière_--The _Wasp_ and the _Frolic_--The
_United States_ and the _Macedonian_--The _Constitution_ and the
_Java_--Reorganization and Strengthening of the Army--Operations
in the West--Gallant Defense of Fort Stephenson--American Invasion
of Ohio and Victory of the Thames--Indian Massacre at Fort Mimms--Capture
of York (Toronto)--Defeat of the Enemy at Sackett's Harbor--Failure of
the American Invasion of Canada--The _Hornet_ and _Peacock_--Capture
of the _Chesapeake_--"Don't Give Up the Ship"--Captain Decatur Blockaded
at New London--Capture of the _Argus_ by the Enemy--Cruise of the
_Essex_--The Glorious Victory of Commodore Perry on Lake Erie--Success
of the American Arms in Canada--Battle of the Chippewa--Of Lundy's
Lane--Decisive Defeat of the Enemy's Attack on Plattsburg--Punishment
of the Creek Indians for the Massacre at Fort Mimms--Vigorous Action
by the National Government--Burning of Washington by the British--The
Hartford Convention 181


CHAPTER X.

ADMINISTRATIONS OF JAMES MONROE AND JOHN QUINCY ADAMS, 1817-1829.

James Monroe--The "Era of Good Feeling"--The Seminole
War--Vigorous Measures of General Jackson--Admission of
Mississippi, Illinois, Alabama, Maine, and Missouri--The Missouri
Compromise--The Monroe Doctrine--Visit of Lafayette--Introduction
of the Use of Gas--Completion of the Erie Canal--The First "Hard
Times"--Extinction of the West Indian Pirates--Presidential
Election of 1824--John Quincy Adams--Prosperity of the Country
--Introduction of the Railway Locomotive--Trouble with the
Cherokees in Georgia--Death of Adams and Jefferson--Congressional
Action on the Tariff--Presidential Election of 1828 205


CHAPTER XI.

ADMINISTRATIONS OF JACKSON, VAN BUREN, W.H. HARRISON, AND TYLER,
1829-1845.

Andrew Jackson--"To the Victors Belong the Spoils"--The
President's Fight with the United States Bank--Presidential
Election of 1828--Distribution of the Surplus in the United
States Treasury Among the Various States--The Black Hawk War--The
Nullification Excitement--The Seminole War--Introduction of the
Steam Locomotive--Anthracite Coal, McCormick's Reaper, and
Friction Matches--Great Fire in New York--Population of the
United States in 1830--Admission of Arkansas and Michigan--Abolitionism
--France and Portugal Compelled to Pay their Debts to the United
States--The Specie Circular, John Caldwell Calhoun, Henry Clay,
and Daniel Webster--Presidential Election of 1836--Martin Van Buren
--The Panic of 1837--Rebellion in Canada--Population of the United
States in 1840--Presidential Election of 1840--William Henry Harrison
--His Death--John Tyler--His Unpopular Course--The Webster-Ashburton
Treaty--Civil War in Rhode Island--The Anti-rent War in New York--A
Shocking Accident--Admission of Florida--Revolt of Texas Against Mexican
Rule--The Alamo--San Jacinto--The Question of the Annexation of
Texas--The State Admitted--The Copper Mines of Michigan--Presidential
Election of 1844--The Electro-magnetic Telegraph--Professor Morse--His
Labors in Bringing the Invention to Perfection 215


CHAPTER XII.

FAMOUS PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGNS PREVIOUS TO 1840.

The Origin of the "Caucus"--The Election of 1792--The First
Stormy Election--The Constitution Amended--Improvement of the
Method of Nominating Presidential Candidates--The First
Presidential Convention--Convention in Baltimore in
1832--Exciting Scenes--The Presidential Campaign of 1820--"Old
Hickory"--Andrew Jackson's Popularity--Jackson Nominated--"Old
Hickory" Defeated--The "Log-Cabin" and "Hard-Cider" Campaign of
1840--"Tippecanoe and Tyler Too"--Peculiar Feature of the
Harrison Campaign 239


CHAPTER XIII.

ADMINISTRATION OF POLK, 1845-1849.

James K. Polk--_The War with Mexico_--The First Conflict--Battle
of Resaca de la Palma--Vigorous Action of the United States
Government--General Scott's Plan of Campaign--Capture of
Monterey--An Armistice--Capture of Saltillo--Of Victoria--Of
Tampico--General Kearny's Capture of Santa Fé--Conquest of
California--Wonderful March of Colonel Doniphan--Battle of Buena
Vista--General Scott's March Toward the City of Mexico--Capture
of Vera Cruz--American Victory at Cerro Gordo--Five American
Victories in One Day--Santa Anna--Conquest of Mexico Completed--Terms
of the Treaty of Peace--The New Territory Gained--The Slavery Dispute
--The Wilmot Proviso--"Fifty-Four Forty or Fight"--Adjustment of the
Oregon Boundary--Admission of Iowa and Wisconsin--The Smithsonian
Institute--Discovery of Gold in California--The Mormons--The
Presidential Election of 1848 251


CHAPTER XIV.

ADMINISTRATIONS OF TAYLOR, FILLMORE, PIERCE, AND BUCHANAN, 1849-1857.

Zachary Taylor--The "Irrepressible Conflict" in Congress--The
Omnibus Bill--Death of President Taylor--Millard Fillmore--Death
of the Old Leaders and Debut of the New--The Census of 1850--Surveys
for a Railway to the Pacific--Presidential Election of 1852--Franklin
Pierce--Death of Vice-President King--A Commercial Treaty Made with
Japan--Filibustering Expeditions--The Ostend Manifesto--The "Know
Nothing" Party--The Kansas-Nebraska Bill and Repeal of the Missouri
Compromise 269


CHAPTER XV.

ADMINISTRATION OF LINCOLN, 1861-1865 THE WAR FOR THE UNION, 1861.

Abraham Lincoln--Major Anderson's Trying Position--Jefferson
Davis--Inauguration of President Lincoln--Bombardment of Fort
Sumter--War Preparations North and South--Attack on Union Troops
in Baltimore--Situation of the Border States--Unfriendliness of
England and France--Friendship of Russia--The States that
Composed the Southern Confederacy--Union Disaster at Big
Bethel--Success of the Union Campaign in Western Virginia--General
George B. McClellan--First Battle of Bull Run--General McClellan
Called to the Command of the Army of the Potomac--Union Disaster
at Ball's Bluff--Military Operations in Missouri--Battle of Wilson's
Creek--Defeat of Colonel Mulligan at Lexington, Mo.--Supersedure
of Fremont--Operations on the Coast--The Trent Affair--Summary
of the Year's Operations 285


CHAPTER XVI.

ADMINISTRATION OF LINCOLN (CONTINUED), 1861-1865.

WAR FOR THE UNION (CONTINUED), 1862.

Capture of Forts Henry and Donelson--Change in the Confederate
Line of Defense--Capture of Island No. 10--Battle of Pittsburg
Landing or Shiloh--Capture of Corinth--Narrow Escape of
Louisville--Battle of Perryville--Battle of Murfreesboro' or
Stone River--Battle of Pea Ridge--Naval Battle Between the
_Monitor_ and _Merrimac_--Fate of the Two Vessels--Capture of New
Orleans--The Advance Against Richmond--McClellan's Peninsula
Campaign--_The First Confederate Invasion of the North_--_Battle
of Antietam or Sharpsburg_--_Disastrous Union Repulse at
Fredericksburg_--_Summary of the War's Operations_--_The
Confederate Privateers_--_The Emancipation Proclamation_--_Greenbacks
and Bond Issues_ 301


CHAPTER XVII.

ADMINISTRATION OF LINCOLN (CONTINUED), 1861-1865.

WAR FOR THE UNION (CONTINUED), 1863.

The Military Situation in the West--Siege and Capture of
Vicksburg--The Mississippi Opened--Battle of Chickamauga--"The
Rock of Chickamauga"--The Battle Above the Clouds--Siege of
Knoxville--General Hooker Appointed to the Command of the Army of
the Potomac--His Plan of Campaign Against Richmond--Stonewall
Jackson's Stampede of the Eleventh Corps--Critical Situation of
the Union Army--Death of Jackson--Battle of Chancellorsville--Defeat
of Hooker--The Second Confederate Invasion--Battle of Gettysburg--The
Decisive Struggle of the War--Lee's Retreat--Subsequent Movements of
Lee and Meade--Confederate Privateering--Destruction of the
_Nashville_--Failure of the Attacks on Charleston--The Military
Raids--Stuart's Narrow Escape--Stoneman's Raid--Morgan's Raid in
Indiana and Ohio 333


CHAPTER XVIII.

ADMINISTRATION OF LINCOLN (CONCLUDED), 1861-1865.

WAR FOR THE UNION (CONCLUDED), 1864-1865.

The Work Remaining to be Done--General Grant Placed in Command of
all the Union Armies--The Grand Campaign--Bank's Disastrous Red
River Expedition--How the Union Fleet was Saved--Capture of
Mobile by Admiral Farragut--The Confederate Cruisers--Destruction
of the _Alabama_ by the _Kearsarge_--Fate of the Other Confederate
Cruisers--Destruction of the _Albemarle_ by Lieutenant William B.
Cushing--Re-election of President Lincoln--Distress in the South and
Prosperity in the North--The Union Prisoners in the South--Admission
of Nevada--The Confederate Raids from Canada--Sherman's Advance to
Atlanta--Fall of Atlanta--Hood's Vain Attempt to Relieve Georgia--Superb
Success of General Thomas--"Marching Through Georgia"--Sherman's
Christmas Gift to President Lincoln--Opening of Grant's Final
Campaign--Battles in the Wilderness--Wounding of General
Longstreet and Death of Generals Stuart and Sedgwick--Grant's
Flanking Movements Against Lee--A Disastrous Repulse at Cold
Harbor--Defeat of Sigel and Hunter in the Shenandoah Valley--"Bottling-up"
of Butler--Explosions of the Petersburg Mine--Early's Raids--His Final
Defeat by Sheridan--Grant's Campaign--Surrender of Lee--Assassination
of President Lincoln--Death of Booth and Punishment of the
Conspirators--Surrender of Jo Johnston and Collapse of the
Southern Confederacy--Capture of Jefferson Davis--His Release and
Death--Statistics of the Civil War--A Characteristic Anecdote 367


CHAPTER XIX.

ADMINISTRATIONS OF JOHNSON AND GRANT, 1865-1877.

Andrew Johnson--Reconstruction--Quarrel Between the President and
Congress--The Fenians--Execution of Maximilian--Admission of
Nebraska--Laying of the Atlantic Cable--Purchase of Alaska--Impeachment
and Acquittal of the President--Carpet-bag Rule in the South--Presidential
Election of 1868--U.S.



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