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The fatal papers were found
on him, and, seeing his business was known, he offered everything he
had, besides the promise of a large sum of money from Sir Henry Clinton,
to be allowed to go. His captors refused and conducted him to North
Castle, where he was given up to Lieutenant-Colonel Jameson. That
officer had the proof before him in the papers that Arnold was the
unspeakable traitor, but with a stupidity difficult to understand, he
sent a letter to Arnold acquainting him with the capture of André.


Arnold was eating breakfast at his house near the Hudson, when the note
was brought to him by the messenger. Knowing what it meant, he called
his wife to him, told her of his danger, kissed his sleeping boy in the
cradle, ran out of the house, mounted his horse and galloped at headlong
speed for the river. There he sprang into a boat and ordered the men to
row with all haste to the sloop, still at anchor a short distance down
stream and waiting for André. Since these men had no suspicion of the
truth they obeyed orders, and Arnold, by waving a white handkerchief
over his head, prevented the Americans on the shore from firing at him.
He reached the sloop in safety and was carried to New York.

The fact that André was wearing a civilian suit at the time of his
capture made him a spy, according to the laws of war, and the
court-martial before which he was called sentenced him to be hanged.
Clinton was greatly distressed by the impending fate of his favorite
officer and did his utmost to secure his release by Washington. It was
intimated to Clinton that Washington might be induced to exchange André
for Arnold, but such an act by the British commander would have covered
his name with infamy, and he was too honorable even to consider it.

André accepted his fate bravely, only asking that he might be shot
instead of hanged, but even that boon was denied him. General Greene,
who presided at the court-martial, insisted that such leniency would
have been an admission of a doubt of the justice of his sentence. André
was hanged October 2, 1780. King George III. caused a mural tablet to be
erected to his memory, and his remains were removed to England in 1821
and placed in Westminster Abbey. A pension was conferred upon his mother
and his brother was created a baronet. Sad as was the fate of André, and
general as was the sympathy felt for him in this country, there can be
no question of the justice of his sentence. He was a spy, and, had he
succeeded in his mission, might have caused the failure of the war for

Arnold received more than $30,000 as a reward for his treason. He was
disliked by the British officers, and Cornwallis did not hesitate to
show his contempt for him. He engaged in several raids against his
countrymen, but since he always fought "with a rope around his neck," he
was never trusted with any important command.

He removed to England with his family after the war, and his sons
received commissions in the British army. It is worth noting that all
did creditable service, and their descendants became worthy members of
the community, a fact which no one can regret, since they could be held
in no way responsible for the horrifying crime of their ancestor, who,
despised by all around him, died in London in 1801.



Capture of Savannah--British Conquest of Georgia--Fall of
Charleston--Bitter Warfare in South Carolina--Battle of Camden--Of
King's Mountain--Of the Cowpens--Battle of Guilford Court-House--Movements
of Cornwallis--The Final Campaign--Peace and Independence.


The wave of war continued to roll southward. The British had met with
such meagre success in the Northern and Middle States that they turned
their efforts toward the conquest of the South. In the latter part of
December, 1778, an expedition from New York compelled the small garrison
at Savannah to surrender. British troops from Florida then reinforced
the expedition, Augusta and other towns were captured, and the whole
State was brought under British control. General Benjamin Lincoln, the
American commander, had too few troops to offer successful resistance,
and the Tories gave much trouble.

In September, 1779, Lincoln crossed into Georgia and, with the aid of
the French fleet under D'Estaing, made an attempt to recapture Savannah.
The attack was made with the greatest bravery by the allies, but they
suffered a disastrous repulse, and D'Estaing again sailed for the West
Indies. Georgia was brought so completely under British control that a
royal governor and officers were installed. The Whigs were treated with
great cruelty, and for two years the struggle in the Carolinas assumed a
ferocious character. It was civil war in its most frightful form.
Neighbor was arrayed against neighbor. Every man was compelled to be a
Whig or Tory, and when one party captured another, it generally executed
the prisoners as traitors. There were many instances in which those of
the same family fought one another with the utmost fury, and the horrors
of war were displayed in all their dreadful colors.

For a long time the British kept a strong force at Newport, but they
were withdrawn, and a strong expedition was sent South to capture


General Lincoln had a garrison of 3,000, his forts, and a number of
vessels, with which he was confident of making a successful defense of
the city. The ships, however, were so inferior to those of the enemy
that Commodore Whipple sank all except one at the mouth of Cooper River
to block the channel, and added his men and guns to the defenses of

Clinton's force was about double that of Lincoln, and he made his
approaches with care and skill. By April 10th he was within a half-mile
of the city, and, Lincoln having refused the demand for surrender, the
enemy opened fire. Lieutenant-Colonel Tarleton, the best cavalry leader
the British had in the country, scattered the patriot cavalry at the
rear of the city, which was fully invested. Reinforcements arrived from
New York, and the siege was pushed vigorously. The garrison made a
sortie which accomplished nothing. Tarleton continually defeated the
American cavalry at the rear, many guns were dismounted, food and
supplies were exhausted until all hope was gone, and on the 12th of May,
1780, Lincoln surrendered his army and the city.

This was one of the severest blows of the war. Clinton secured the city
and more than 400 pieces of artillery. He treated his prisoners kindly,
but lost no time in following up his success. Tarleton destroyed the
command of Colonel Abraham Buford, numbering 400 men, and thus
effectually quenched all organized resistance for a time in South

Clinton would have completed the conquest of the South by advancing into
North Carolina, had he not learned that a French fleet was expected on
the coast. This led him to return to New York with the main army, while
Cornwallis was left behind with 4,000 men to complete the unfinished
work as best he could.

In the spring of 1780, Washington sent reinforcements to the South, with
a regiment of artillery under Baron De Kalb, a German veteran who had
come to America with Lafayette. Although one of the finest of officers,
he could scarcely speak a word of English, and General Gates, on June
13, 1780, was ordered by Congress to assume command of the southern
department. He proved unequal to the difficult task, for not only were
the troops few and miserably disciplined and armed, but they were in a
starving condition. The summer was one of the hottest ever known, and,
although reinforcements were expected, Gates decided not to wait before
putting his forces in motion. Reinforcements reaching him after a time,
he marched against Cornwallis, who was eager to meet him.


The battle was fought at Camden, and was conducted with such skill by
Cornwallis that the raw and untried patriots were utterly routed. The
centre and left wings were swept from the field, but the right under De
Kalb fought with splendid heroism, and it required the whole army of
Cornwallis to drive it from the field. In the fight De Kalb received
eleven wounds, and died the next morning.

The battle of Camden marked the complete destruction of Gates' army. The
militia scattered to their homes, convinced that it was useless to fight
longer, while Gates with a few adherents continued his flight for nearly
two hundred miles. Two days later, Colonel Sumter with eight hundred men
was attacked on the Wateree by Tarleton, who killed half his force and
recaptured his prisoners and booty.


Confident that the complete conquest of the South was close at hand,
Cornwallis gave every energy to the work. This was rendered difficult by
the activity of Francis Marion, Thomas Sumter, Andrew Pickens, and other
partisan leaders, who were acquainted with every mile of the country,
and on their horses made swift marches, struck effective blows, and were
off again before pursuit could be made. The wonderful work of Marion in
this respect caused him to be known as the "Swamp Fox of the Carolinas."
Many of Tarleton's troopers fell before the fire of these daring
rangers, who occasionally were strong enough to capture important posts.
It is worthy of mention in this place that to Sumter was the distinction
of attaining the greatest age of any officer of the Revolution. At his
death, in 1832, he was in his ninety-ninth year.


As illustrative of the spirit of the Southern colonists, we may be
pardoned for the digression of the following anecdote. The fighting of
Marion and his men was much like that of the wild Apaches of the
southwest. When hotly pursued by the enemy his command would break up
into small parties, and these as they were hard pressed would subdivide,
until nearly every patriot was fleeing alone. There could be no
successful pursuit, therefore, since the subdivision of the pursuing
party weakened it too much.

"We will give fifty pounds to get within reach of the scamp that
galloped by here, just ahead of us," exclaimed a lieutenant of
Tarleton's cavalry, as he and three other troopers drew up before a
farmer, who was hoeing in the field by the roadside.

The farmer looked up, leaned on his hoe, took off his old hat, and,
mopping his forehead with his handkerchief, looked at the angry soldier
and said:

"Fifty pounds is a big lot of money."

"So it is in these times, but we'll give it to you in gold, if you'll
show us where we can get a chance at the rebel; did you see him?"

"He was all alone, was he?

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