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It was to be
under private management. In the face of the strong opposition, the act
creating it was passed, and it was chartered for twenty years. The
subscriptions required that one-fourth should be paid in specie and the
rest in six per cent. certificates of the bank. Within two hours after
the subscription books were opened the entire amount of stock was
subscribed. The United States Bank was destined to play an important
part in national affairs in after years.


PASSAGE OF A TARIFF BILL.

Having provided the means for funding the debt and for borrowing money,
it yet remained to find some way of earning the money. The method was so
apparent that Congress lost no time in passing a tariff bill. A law
placed a duty on imported and domestic spirits, and, in February, 1792,
a protective tariff bill was enacted. This provided that the materials
from which goods are manufactured should not be taxed, while articles
competing with those made in this country were prohibited. A mint was
also established in Philadelphia for coining money.


THE FEDERAL JUDICIARY ORGANIZED.

The plan for the Federal judiciary was perfected on the lines proposed
by Ellsworth, of Connecticut. The national judiciary consisted of a
supreme court, having a chief justice and five associate justices, who
were to hold two sessions annually at the seat of the Federal
government. Specified jurisdiction was given to the circuit and district
courts, and each State was made a district; the Territories of Maine and
Kentucky were provided for in the same manner, and the remaining
Territories were grouped into three circuits. When the matter in dispute
amounted to $2,000, an appeal could be taken from the lower courts to
the supreme court. The President was to appoint a marshal in each
district, possessing the general powers of a sheriff, and the interests
of the government were placed in the hands of a district attorney.

The first chief justice of the United States was John Jay, of New York,
while Edmund Randolph, of Virginia, was made attorney-general. The
associate judges were John Rutledge, of South Carolina; James Wilson, of
Pennsylvania; William Cushing, of Massachusetts; Robert H. Harrison, of
Maryland; and John Blair, of Virginia.

Vermont was admitted to the Union on March 4, 1791; Kentucky, June 1,
1792; and Tennessee exactly two years later. These three States were all
that were formed during the presidency of Washington.

[Illustration: BEN FRANKLIN MOULDING CANDLES IN HIS FATHER'S SHOP.]

Benjamin Franklin died in Philadelphia, April 17, 1790, at the age of
eighty-four years. Since he was one of the greatest of all Americans, he
is entitled to fitting notice. He was born in Boston in 1706, and was
the youngest of seventeen children. His father was a tallow chandler and
soap boiler, a trade which Benjamin detested. He was apprenticed to his
brother, who was a printer, and while a boy gave evidence of his
remarkable keenness and brilliant common sense. Rebelling against the
discipline of his brother, he ran away, tramping most of the distance
to Philadelphia. There he secured a situation and showed himself so
skillful and tasteful a printer that he never lacked for work. He
established a paper in Philadelphia in 1729, and began the publication
of _Poor Richard's Almanac_ in 1732, the year in which Washington was
born. The wit, homely philosophy, and keen penetration shown by Franklin
attracted wide attention and gave the almanac an enormous circulation,
which lasted as long as it was published. Many of his proverbs are still
popular and widely quoted.

In 1753, he was appointed deputy postmaster of the British colonies,
and, as a delegate to the Albany Convention in 1754, proposed an
important plan for colonial union. From 1757 to 1762, and again from
1764 to the Revolution, he was agent of Pennsylvania in England; part of
the time also for Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Georgia. Returning to
Philadelphia in 1775, he was at once chosen a delegate to the
Continental Congress. Few persons, in looking at his handsome signature
on the Declaration of Independence, would suspect that it was written
when he was seventy years old. It has been shown that he was one of the
committee of five who drew up the Declaration, and in the following
autumn was sent to Paris to join Arthur Lee and Silas Deane. His
services there were of the highest importance. He had a leading part in
the negotiations of the treaty of peace in 1783, after which he
negotiated a favorable treaty with Russia. He returned to America in
1785, and was chosen president of Pennsylvania, and again in 1786 and
1787. He was an influential member of the Constitutional convention, and
probably was second to Washington in popularity. His funeral in
Philadelphia was attended by more than 20,000 persons.

[Illustration: FRANKLIN'S GRAVE.]

Franklin's researches in electricity, though slight as compared with the
discoveries since made by Edison, Tesla, and others, extended his fame
to Europe. By means of the kite which he sent aloft in a thunderstorm,
he proved that the lightning in the atmosphere is identical with that
developed by frictional electricity. This discovery led to the invention
of the lightning-rod for buildings, which has been the means of saving
property beyond estimate. He was the inventor also of an economical
stove and other useful contrivances. He made himself wealthy, and the
fortune which he left at his death was the foundation of the splendid
institution of learning known as the University of Pennsylvania.

[Illustration: THE BATTLE OF FALLEN TIMBERS

In this memorable battle of August 20, 1794, General Wayne visited a
final defeat upon the Indians at Maumee Rapids, putting an end to the
war in the Northwest, which for nearly four years had terrorized and
devastated the territory now occupied by the States of Indiana, Ohio and
Illinois.]


DISASTROUS EXPEDITION AGAINST THE WESTERN INDIANS.

Returning to the history of Washington's presidency, mention must be
made of the troubles with the western Indians, who, as has been stated,
fought relentlessly against the advance of civilization into their
hunting grounds. Between 1783 and 1790, 1,500 persons were killed by the
red men near the Ohio. It being clear that peace could not be secured
except by a thorough chastisement of the Indians, Congress gave General
Arthur St. Clair, governor of the Northwest Territory, authority to call
for 500 militia from Pennsylvania and a thousand from Kentucky, to which
were added 400 regulars. Under General Harmar they marched against the
Indian villages.

In the campaign the Indians outgeneraled Harmar, who, after inflicting
some damage, was defeated and lost 200 men in killed and wounded. The
defeat encouraged the savages, who became more aggressive than ever.
General St. Clair organized a second expedition consisting of 2,000 men,
including cavalry and artillery, with which in October, 1793, he entered
the Indian country, only to suffer a more disastrous defeat than General
Harmar, and in which the losses were so dreadful that the news caused
consternation in Philadelphia. Washington had cautioned St. Clair
against the very mistakes he made, and he completely lost his temper. He
paced up and down his room, giving such expressions to his feelings that
those around him were awed into silence. By-and-by, he seemed to regret
the outburst, and, when the trembling St. Clair some time later
presented himself, the President received him without reproach; but St.
Clair was overwhelmed by his disgrace and resigned his command.


WAYNE'S VICTORY OVER THE INDIANS.

Washington determined that no more blunders should be made, and
appointed Anthony Wayne to the command of the next expedition. He raised
a large force, moved cautiously, and took every precaution against
surprise, as Washington had told him to do. He had 4,000 men under his
command, and the consummate woodcraft and tricks of the red men failed
to deceive him. At Fallen Timbers, near the present city of Toledo, he
met a large force, August 20, 1794, of Canadians and Indians, completely
routed them, killed a great many, with slight loss to himself, and so
crushed the confederation of tribes that they gave no more trouble for a
long time. A year later, 1,100 chiefs and warriors met the United States
commissioners at Fort Greenville and signed a treaty of peace, by which
they ceded to the government an immense tract of land lying in the
present States of Michigan and Indiana. An impetus was given to western
emigration, which suffered no interruption for many years.


THE WHISKEY INSURRECTION IN PENNSYLVANIA.

One of the acts of Congress was to declare that Philadelphia was to be
the national capital for ten years, from 1790, when it was to be removed
to a point on the Potomac River, where the city of Washington now
stands. One measure which Hamilton induced Congress to pass caused
trouble. It doubled the duty on imported spirits and taxed those
distilled in this country. So much dissatisfaction appeared in North
Carolina and Pennsylvania that the law was modified, but it did not end
the discontent. The officers sent to Pennsylvania to collect the taxes
were resisted and the militia sympathized with the rioters, whose
numbers swelled to 7,000 under arms. When they began to talk of
appealing to England, Washington lost patience and sent a large body of
Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey militia to the section.
They were under the command of General Henry Lee, governor of Virginia,
and arrived on the scene in October, 1794. Order was soon restored, and
the ringleaders, expressing sorrow for their acts, were not punished.
This seems to be the rule in our country, except that repentance on the
part of criminals is not required.


"CITIZEN GENET."

The action of "Citizen Genet" caused a flurry during Washington's
presidency. The "Reign of Terror" had begun in France, where the most
appalling revolution in history had taken place. The tyranny of the
rulers had driven the people to frenzied desperation, and, overthrowing
the government, their massacres were not checked until literally
hundreds of thousands of people were killed.



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