A B C D E F
G H I J K L M 

Total read books on site:
more than 10 000

You can read its for free!


Text on one page: Few Medium Many
The tyranny of the
rulers had driven the people to frenzied desperation, and, overthrowing
the government, their massacres were not checked until literally
hundreds of thousands of people were killed. Since their rebellion was
begun against tyranny, and France had helped us in our war for
independence, there was general sympathy for the people in our own
country, though everyone was shocked by the deeds that soon horrified
the civilized world.

Having established a government, the revolutionists sent Edward Charles
Genet to this country as its representative. He was warmly welcomed at
Charleston, where he landed in April, 1793. He was too discourteous to
go to Philadelphia to present his credentials, and began enlisting
recruits for France and intriguing for an alliance with us. Since France
was fighting England, Austria, Prussia, Sardinia, and Holland, it can be
understood how desirable such an alliance would have been to her.

Washington was too wise to be misled, and he issued a proclamation of
neutrality, forbidding citizens of the United States to equip vessels to
carry on hostilities against the belligerent powers. Genet paid no
attention to this, but kept on enlisting men and fitting out cruisers
in American waters. His course became so intolerable that Washington
demanded his recall. This demand was complied with, and he was ordered
to return home. No one knew better than he that if he showed himself in
France he would lose his head. So he stayed in this country until his
death in 1834.


JAY'S TREATY.

[Illustration: CHIEF JUSTICE JOHN JAY.]

The course of England became so unjust toward the commerce, because of
her war with France, that Chief Justice John Jay, in May, 1794, was sent
as envoy extraordinary to that country to demand redress. A treaty was
agreed upon and ratified by the Senate in June, 1795, which provided
that the British garrisons should be withdrawn from the western posts by
June 1, 1796; free inland navigation upon lakes and rivers was
guaranteed to both nations, except that the United States was excluded
from the territory of the Hudson Bay Company; British vessels were
admitted to the rivers and harbors on our seacoast, but our shipping was
shut out from the rivers and harbors of the British provinces, with the
exception of small vessels trading between Montreal and Quebec; our
northeastern boundary was to be fixed by a commission; the payments of
debts incurred before the war were guaranteed to British creditors, if
such debts were collectible by an American creditor; Great Britain was
to pay for losses resulting from irregular captures by her cruisers;
citizens of either country were allowed to hold landed possessions in
the territory of the other; private property was not to be confiscated
in time of war; trade between the United States and the West Indies was
free to the vessels of both nations, but American vessels were forbidden
to carry West Indian products from the islands or from the States to any
other part of the world. The last clause was to be in force only two
years, when further negotiation was to take place. In addition, the two
years' limit was applicable to the right of American vessels to trade
between the East Indies and the United States, but in time of war they
were not to take thither any rice or military stores; free commerce was
established between the British dominions in Europe and the United
States; the regulation of duties was provided for, as well as the
appointment of consuls and the rules of blockade; privateering was
regulated; what was contraband of war was defined, and it was agreed
that piracy should be punished; ships of war could enter the ports of
either country; criminals escaping from one country to the other were to
be surrendered; and, in the event of war between the two countries,
citizens in hostile territory were not to be molested.

Although this treaty possessed many good points, and was the best
obtainable by our envoy, it gave so many advantages to Great Britain
that it roused bitter enmity in this country. Public meetings were held
in the leading cities, where it was denounced as cowardly and made for
the express purpose of avoiding a war with England. The feeling rose so
high that Jay was burned in effigy, Hamilton was assaulted at a public
meeting, the British minister insulted, and even Washington himself
treated with disrespect. Better judgment prevailed, when the passions
cooled, and it is now admitted that Jay's treaty, when all the
circumstances are considered, was a commendable one.


SECOND ELECTION OF WASHINGTON.

It was Washington's wish to retire to private life on conclusion of his
first term, but he could not disregard the demand from all quarters. No
competitor appeared in the field against him, and for a second time he
was unanimously elected. His vote was 132; that cast for the candidates
for the minor office being, John Adams, Federalist, 77; George Clinton,
of New York, Republican, 50; Thomas Jefferson, of Virginia, Republican,
4; Aaron Burr, of New York, Republican, 1; vacancies, 3. This vote made
John Adams again Vice-President.

Since Jefferson was the leader of the Republicans (or as now called the
Democrats), and Hamilton of the Federalists (afterward the Whigs), and
the two, as members of Washington's cabinet, were able and aggressive,
they were continually disputing. Sometimes they sorely tried
Washington's patience, who, appreciating the ability of both, often had
hard work to prevent an open rupture. On the last day in 1793, Jefferson
resigned his office as secretary of foreign affairs and retired to
private life at Monticello, Virginia. A year later Hamilton resigned as
minister of finance. Through his efforts public credit had been
restored, and industry and trade had revived. He well deserved the
eloquent tribute of Daniel Webster: "He smote the rock of the national
resources, and abundant streams of revenues burst forth. He touched the
dead corpse of public credit, and it sprung upon its feet."

As Washington's second term drew to a close, a universal demand was made
that he should serve again. Despite the fact that the two great
political parties were fairly organized, and each contained many able
men, no one would have had the temerity to offer himself as a
competitor; but he was growing old, his strength had been worn out in
the service of his country, and the rest he yearned for could no longer
be denied him. He, therefore, issued his immortal Farewell Address to
his countrymen and withdrew to Mount Vernon, where he peacefully passed
away December 14, 1799, mourned by the whole country and revered by the
civilized world.

The Farewell Address contains counsel that can never lose its value to
America. After thanking his fellow-countrymen for the confidence they
had always shown in him, and the support he had received from them, he
said that the love of liberty was so interwoven with every ligament of
their hearts that no recommendation of his was necessary to fortify that
attachment. The unity of government, by which they were made one people,
had also become very dear to them.

[Illustration: WASHINGTON'S BEDROOM, MT. VERNON, IN WHICH HE DIED.]

"It is justly so," he said, "for it is a main pillar in the edifice of
your real independence--the support of your tranquillity at home, your
peace abroad; of your safety, of your prosperity; of that very liberty
which you so highly prize. But, as it is easy to foresee that, from
different causes and from different quarters, much pains will be taken,
many artifices be employed to weaken in your minds the conviction of
this truth--as this is the point in your political fortress against
which the batteries of internal and external enemies will be most
constantly and actively (though often covertly and insidiously)
directed--it is of infinite moment that you should properly estimate the
immense value of your national union to your collective and individual
happiness; that you should cherish a cordial, habitual, and immovable
attachment to it; accustoming yourselves to think and speak of it as the
palladium of your political safety and prosperity; watching for its
preservation with jealous anxiety; discountenancing whatever may suggest
even a suspicion that it can in any event be abandoned, and indignantly
frowning upon the first dawning of every attempt to alienate any portion
of our country from the rest, or to enfeeble the sacred ties which now
link together the various parts. For this you have every inducement of
sympathy and interest. Citizens, by birth or choice, of a common
country, that country has a right to concentrate your affections. The
name of AMERICAN, which belongs to you in your national capacity, must
also exalt the just pride of patriotism more than any appellation
derived from local discriminations. With slight shades of difference,
you have the same religion, manners, habits, and political principles.
You have in a common cause fought and triumphed together; the
independence and liberty you possess are the work of joint counsels and
joints efforts; of common dangers, sufferings, and successes."

[Illustration: THE MOTHER OF WASHINGTON RECEIVING MARQUIS LAFAYETTE.

Previous to his departure for Europe, in the fall of 1784, the Marquis
de Lafayette repaired to Fredericksburg to pay his parting respects to
Washington's mother and to ask her blessing.

Conducted by one of her grandsons he approached the house, when, the
young gentleman observing, "There, sir, is my grandmother," the Marquis
beheld, working in her garden, clad in domestic-made clothes and her
gray head covered by a plain straw hat, the mother of "his hero, his
friend, and a country's preserver." The lady saluted him kindly,
observing, "Ah, Marquis, you see an old woman; but come, I can make you
welcome to my poor dwelling without the parade of changing my dress."]

Washington next pointed out the mutual advantages derived from one
another in the different sections of the Union, and impressively warned
his countrymen against the danger of sectional parties and the baneful
effects of party spirit.



Pages: | Prev | | 1 | | 2 | | 3 | | 4 | | 5 | | 6 | | 7 | | 8 | | 9 | | 10 | | 11 | | 12 | | 13 | | 14 | | 15 | | 16 | | 17 | | 18 | | 19 | | 20 | | 21 | | 22 | | 23 | | 24 | | 25 | | 26 | | 27 | | 28 | | 29 | | 30 | | 31 | | 32 | | 33 | | 34 | | 35 | | 36 | | 37 | | 38 | | 39 | | 40 | | 41 | | 42 | | 43 | | 44 | | 45 | | 46 | | 47 | | 48 | | 49 | | 50 | | 51 | | 52 | | 53 | | 54 | | 55 | | 56 | | 57 | | 58 | | 59 | | 60 | | 61 | | 62 | | 63 | | 64 | | 65 | | 66 | | 67 | | 68 | | 69 | | 70 | | 71 | | 72 | | 73 | | 74 | | 75 | | 76 | | 77 | | 78 | | 79 | | 80 | | 81 | | 82 | | 83 | | 84 | | 85 | | 86 | | 87 | | 88 | | 89 | | 90 | | 91 | | 92 | | 93 | | 94 | | 95 | | 96 | | 97 | | 98 | | 99 | | 100 | | 101 | | 102 | | 103 | | 104 | | 105 | | 106 | | 107 | | 108 | | 109 | | 110 | | 111 | | 112 | | 113 | | 114 | | 115 | | 116 | | 117 | | 118 | | 119 | | 120 | | 121 | | 122 | | 123 | | 124 | | 125 | | 126 | | 127 | | 128 | | 129 | | 130 | | 131 | | 132 | | 133 | | 134 | | 135 | | 136 | | 137 | | 138 | | 139 | | 140 | | 141 | | 142 | | Next |

N O P Q R S T
U V W X Y Z 

Your last read book:

You dont read books at this site.