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Other States
endorsed her action and the situation became serious.

President Jackson hated the tariff as much as South Carolina, but his
love for the Union was unquenchable, and, having sworn to enforce the
laws, he was determined to do it in the face of any and all opposition.
Because Vice-President Calhoun sided with his native State, Jackson
threatened to arrest him. Calhoun resigned, went home, and was elected
United States senator.

President Jackson issued a warning proclamation on the 10th of December,
but South Carolina continued her war preparations, and the President
sent General Scott, with the sloop-of-war _Natchez_, to Charleston, with
orders to strengthen the garrison in the harbor. Scott displayed great
discretion, and won the good-will of the citizens by his forbearance and
courtesy. The other Southern States condemned the rash course of South
Carolina, within which gradually appeared quite a number of supporters
of the Union. Then Clay introduced a bill in Congress, which became law,
providing for a gradual reduction of duties until the 30th of June,
1842, when they were to reach a general level of twenty per cent.
Calhoun, now a member of the Senate, supported the compromise, and the
threatened civil war passed away for the time.


SECOND SEMINOLE WAR.

Trouble once more broke out with the Seminoles of Florida. The
aggravation, already referred to, continued. Runaway slaves found safe
refuge in the swamps of the State and intermarried with the Indians. A
treaty, known as that of Payne's Landing, was signed in May, 1832, by
which a number of chiefs visited the country assigned to the Creeks, it
being agreed that, if they found it satisfactory, the Seminoles should
remove thither. They reported in its favor, but the other leaders,
incensed at their action, killed several of them, and declared, probably
with truth, that they did not represent the sentiment of their people,
and doubtless had been influenced by the whites to make their report.
The famous Osceola expressed his opinion of the treaty by driving his
hunting-knife through it and the top of the table on which it lay.

It being clear that the Seminoles had no intention of going west,
President Jackson sent General Wiley Thompson to Florida with a military
force to drive them out. The Indians secured a delay until the spring of
1835, under the promise to leave at that time; but when the date
arrived, they refused to a man. Osceola was so defiant in an interview
with General Thompson that the latter put him in irons and held him
prisoner for a couple of days. Then the chief promised to comply with
the terms of the treaty and was released. He had not the slightest
intention, however, of keeping his promise, but was resolved to be
revenged upon Thompson for the indignity he had put upon him.

In the month of December, 1835, while Thompson and a party of friends
were dining near Fort King, with the windows raised, because of the
mildness of the day, Osceola and a party of his warriors stole up and
fired a volley through the windows, which killed Thompson and four of
his companions. Before the garrison of the fort could do anything, the
Seminoles had fled.


DADE'S MASSACRE.

On the same day of this tragical occurrence, Major Francis L. Dade set
out with 140 mounted men to the relief of General Clinch, stationed at
Fort Drane, in the interior of Florida, where he was threatened with
massacre. Dade advanced from Fort Brooke at the head of Tampa Bay, and
was not far on the road when he was fired upon by the Indians from
ambush. Half the men were killed, including Major Dade. The remainder
hastily fortified themselves, but were attacked in such overwhelming
numbers that every man was shot down. Two wounded soldiers crawled into
the woods, but afterward died. "Dade's Massacre" caused as profound a
sensation throughout the country as did that of Custer and his command
forty years later.

The Seminole War dragged on for years. General Scott commanded for a
time in 1836, and vigorously pressed a campaign in the autumn of that
year; but when he turned over the command, in the spring of 1837, to
General Zachary Taylor, the conquest of the Seminoles seemingly was as
far off as ever. Taylor attempted to use a number of Cuban bloodhounds
for tracking the mongrels into the swamps, but the dogs refused to take
the trail of the red men, and the experiment (widely denounced in the
North) was a failure.

In October, while Osceola and a number of warriors were holding a
conference with General Jessup under the protection of a flag of truce,
all were made prisoners, and Osceola was sent to Charleston, and died in
Fort Moultrie in 1838. The war dragged on until 1842, when General
Worth, after it had cost $40,000,000 and many lives, brought it to an
end by destroying the crops of the Seminoles and leaving to them the
choice between starvation and submission.

[Illustration: OSCEOLA'S INDIGNATION.]


GREAT IMPROVEMENTS IN THE COMFORTS OF LIFE.

The steam locomotive, of which we have given a brief history, came into
general use during the presidency of General Jackson. When he left
office 1,500 miles of railway had been built, and many more were being
laid in different parts of the country. It wrought a social revolution
by bringing all parts of the country into close communication, making
settlement easy and the cost of moving crops slight. Anthracite coal was
tested in 1837, and, because of its great advantages, was soon widely
used. McCormick's reaper was patented in 1834, and gave an enormous
impetus to the cultivation of western lands. In the early days fire was
obtained by the use of flint and steel or the sun-glass. Friction
matches appeared in 1836, and quickly supplanted the clumsy method that
had been employed for centuries.

On the night of December 16, 1835, New York City was visited by the most
destructive fire in its history. The weather was so cold that the
volunteer fire department could do little to check the conflagration,
which destroyed 648 buildings, covering seventeen blocks and thirteen
acres of ground. The value of the property lost was $20,000,000.


THE COUNTRY IN 1830.

The population of the United States in 1830 was 12,866,020, and the
postoffices, which in 1790 numbered only 75, had grown to 8,450. The
sales of the western lands had increased from $100,000 to $25,000,000 a
year, a fact which explains the rapid extinguishment of the public debt.

[Illustration: WESTERN RAILROAD IN EARLIER DAYS.]

Two States were admitted to the Union, Arkansas in 1836 and Michigan in
1837. The former was a part of the Louisiana purchase, and was
originally settled by the French at Arkansas Post, in 1635. Michigan was
the fourth State formed from the Northwest Territory, and was first
settled by the French at Detroit in 1701.

Abolitionism assumed definite form in 1831, when William Lloyd Garrison,
in his Boston paper, _The Liberator_, demanded the immediate abolition
of slavery. Anti-slavery societies were organized in different parts of
the country and the members became known as abolitionists. The South was
incensed by the agitation, which reached its culmination in the great
Civil War of 1861-65.


FRANCE AND PORTUGAL FORCED TO TERMS.

President Jackson impressed his personality upon everything with which
he came in contact. We had been pressing a suit against France for the
injuries she inflicted upon our commerce during the flurry of 1798, but
that country was so laggard in paying that the President recommended to
Congress that enough French vessels should be captured to pay the bill.
France flared up and threatened war unless Jackson apologized. A dozen
wars would not have moved him to recall his words. England, however,
mediated, and France paid the debt. Portugal took the hint and lost no
time in settling a similar account with us.

President Jackson, imitating Washington, issued a farewell address to
his countrymen. It was well written and patriotic; but his last official
act, which was characteristic of him, displeased many of his friends.
The speculation in western lands had assumed such proportions that the
treasury department, in July, 1836, sent out a circular ordering the
collectors of the public revenues to receive only gold and silver in
payment. This circular caused so much confusion and trouble that, at the
beginning of 1837, Congress modified it so that it would have given
great relief. Jackson held the bill in his possession until the
adjournment of Congress, and thus prevented its becoming a law.

The stormy years of Jackson's presidency brought into prominence three
of the greatest of Americans. All, at different times, were members of
the United States Senate, where their genius overshadowed those who
under other circumstances would have attracted national attention. These
men were John Caldwell Calhoun, Henry Clay, and Daniel Webster.


JOHN C. CALHOUN.

[Illustration: JOHN C. CALHOUN. (1782-1850).]

The first named was born near Abbeville, South Carolina, March 18, 1782,
and, graduating at Yale, studied law and early developed fine qualities
of statesmanship. He was elected to the House of Representatives in
1811, and became at once the leader of the younger element of the
Democratic party. He was a vehement advocate of the war with Great
Britain, and, in 1817, was appointed secretary of war under Monroe,
serving to the close of his presidency. It has been shown that he was
elected Vice-President with Adams. Elected again with Jackson, the two
became uncompromising opponents, and he resigned in 1832, immediately
entering the Senate, where he was accepted as the leader of the "State
rights" men.

His services as senator were interrupted for a short time when, in
1844-45, he acted as secretary of State in Tyler's administration. He
was determined to secure the admission of Texas and by his vigor did so,
in the face of a strong opposition in the North. He re-entered the
Senate and resumed his leadership of the extreme southern wing of the
Democratic party. He died in Washington, March 31, 1850, while Clay's
compromise measures were pending.

Calhoun ranks among the foremost of American statesmen, and as the
champion of the South his place is far above any who appeared before or
who have come after him.



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