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10--Battle of Pittsburg Landing or
Shiloh--Capture of Corinth--Narrow Escape of Louisville--Battle of
Perryville--Battle of Murfreesboro' or Stone River--Battle of Pea
Ridge--Naval Battle Between the _Monitor_ and _Merrimac_--Fate of the
Two Vessels--Capture of New Orleans--The Advance Against
Richmond--McClellan's Peninsula Campaign--_The First Confederate
Invasion of the North_--_Battle of Antietam or Sharpsburg_--_Disastrous
Union Repulse at Fredericksburg_--_Summary of the Wars Operations_--_The
Confederate Privateers_--_The Emancipation Proclamation_--_Greenbacks
and Bond Issues_.


CAPTURE OF FORTS HENRY AND DONELSON.

The fighting of the second year of the war opened early. General Albert
Sidney Johnston, one of the ablest leaders of the Confederacy, was in
chief command in the West. The Confederate line ran through southern
Kentucky, from Columbus to Mill Spring, through Bowling Green. Two
powerful forts had been built in Tennessee, near the northern boundary
line. One was Fort Henry on the Tennessee River, and the other Fort
Donelson, twelve miles away, on the Cumberland.

Opposed to this strong position were two Union armies, the larger,
numbering 100,000, under General Don Carlos Buell, in central Kentucky,
and the lesser, numbering 15,000, commanded by General U.S. Grant, at
Cairo. Under Buell was General George H. Thomas, one of the finest
leaders in the Union army. In January, with a division of Buell's army,
he attacked the Confederates, routed and drove them into Tennessee. In
the battle, General Zollicoffer, the Confederate commander, was killed.

Embarking at Cairo, General Grant steamed up the Tennessee River,
intending to capture Fort Henry. Before he could do so, Commodore Andrew
H. Foote, with his fleet of gunboats, compelled it to surrender, though
most of the garrison escaped across the neck of land to Fort Donelson.


CAPTURE OF FORT DONELSON.

Upon learning that Fort Henry had fallen, Grant steamed up the
Cumberland to attack Fort Donelson, which was reinforced until the
garrison numbered some 20,000 men. It was a powerful fortification,
with many rifle-pits and intrenchments on the land side, and powerful
batteries commanding the river. The political General Floyd was in chief
command, the right wing being under General Simon B. Buckner and the
left in charge of General Gideon J. Pillow.

On the afternoon of February 14th, Commodore Foote opened the attack
with two wooden vessels and four ironclad gunboats. The garrison made no
reply until the boats had worked their way to within a fourth of a mile
of the fort, the elevation of which enabled it to send a plunging fire,
which proved so destructive that two of the boats were disabled and
drifted down current, the other following. Some fifty men were killed,
and among the wounded was Commodore Foote. He withdrew to Cairo,
intending to wait until a sufficient force could be brought up from that
point.

[Illustration: UNITED STATES 12-INCH BREECH-LOADING MORTAR, OR
HOWITZER.]

But General Grant, like the bull-dog to which he was often compared,
having inserted his teeth in his adversary, did not mean to let go.
Placing his troops in front of the works, it did not take him long to
invest the whole Confederate left, with the exception of a swampy strip
near the river. The weather, which had been unusually mild for the
season, now became extremely cold, and some of the Union men were frozen
to death in the trenches. The garrison also suffered greatly, but the
siege was pressed with untiring vigor. Seeing the inextricable coils
closing round them, the defenders made an attempt to cut their way out,
but Grant with true military genius saw the crisis and ordered an
advance along the whole line, the gunboats giving all the help they
could.

The situation of the garrison was so dangerous that a council of war was
held that night. Floyd and Pillow were frightened nearly out of their
wits. They rated themselves so high as prizes for the Federals that they
determined to make their escape before the surrender, which was
inevitable, was forced. Buckner was another sort of man. Disgusted with
the cowardice of his associates, he quietly announced that he would stay
by his men to the last. Floyd stole out of the fort with his brigade and
crossed the river in boats, while Pillow followed in a scow, a large
number of the cavalry galloping by the lower road to Nashville.

Grant was ready for the assault at daylight the next morning, when he
received a note from General Buckner proposing an armistice until noon
in order to arrange terms of capitulation. Grant's reply became famous:
"No terms except immediate and unconditional surrender can be accepted;
I propose to move immediately upon your works." Buckner was
disappointed, but he had no choice except to submit. He was greatly
relieved to find that his conqueror was a chivalrous man, who granted
better terms than he expected. The privates were allowed to retain their
personal baggage and the officers their side-arms. The number of
prisoners was 15,000, and the blow was the first really severe one that
the South had received. As may be supposed, the news caused great
rejoicing in the North and was the beginning of Grant's fame as a
military leader--a fame which steadily grew and expanded with the
progress of the war.

Jefferson Davis saw the mistake he had made in intrusting important
interests to political generals. He deprived Floyd of his command, and
that officer dropped back to the level from which he never ought to have
been raised. Pillow had done some good work in the Mexican War, but he
was erratic and unreliable, and he, too, was summarily snuffed out.
Buckner, a West Point graduate, upon being exchanged soon afterward, was
assigned to an important command and proved himself an excellent
soldier.


CHANGE IN THE CONFEDERATE LINE OF DEFENSE.

The capture of Forts Henry and Donelson compelled a change in the
Confederate line of defense. General Albert Sidney Johnston withdrew
from Bowling Green to Nashville, but fell back again upon learning of
the fall of Fort Donelson, and assumed position near Murfreesboro',
Tennessee. All the northern part of that State, including the Cumberland
River, was given up by the Confederates, and, when the new line was
established, the centre was held by Beauregard at Jackson, the left by
Polk at New Madrid, and the right by Johnston at Murfreesboro'. Thus the
Confederates were driven out of Kentucky and the northern part of
Tennessee. It was a serious check for the Confederacy.


CAPTURE OF ISLAND NO. 10.

General Grant gave the enemy no rest. In order to retain possession of
Island No. 10, it was necessary for them to hold the outpost of New
Madrid. In the latter part of February, General Pope led an expedition
against that place, while Commodore Foote made a demonstration in front
with his gunboats. Through cold and storm the Unionists bravely pushed
their way, and the garrison of New Madrid were compelled to take refuge
on Island No. 10, and in the works on the Kentucky side of the river.
Operations were then begun against Island No. 10. By digging a canal
twelve miles long, which permitted the gunboats to pass around the
defenses, and by energetic operations in all directions, the Confederate
position was rendered untenable, and the post, with a large amount of
war material, was surrendered to Commodore Foote.

Meanwhile, General Grant, after the occupation of Nashville, went down
the Tennessee River to Pittsburg Landing, while General Buell, with the
other portion of the Union army, started for the same point by land.
Aware of this division of the Federal forces, General Albert Sidney
Johnston hastily concentrated his own divisions with the intention of
crushing the two Union armies before they could unite. When Johnston
arrived in the vicinity of Pittsburg Landing on the 3d of April he had
40,000 men, divided into three corps and a reserve.


BATTLE OF PITTSBURG LANDING.

Pittsburg Landing, or Shiloh, as it is called in the South, consists of
a high bluff, a half-mile in extent, where General W.T. Sherman had been
ordered to take position and prepare for the arrival of 100,000 men.
Grant was not prepared for the unexpected attack. Buell was some
distance away with 40,000 troops, and the Union commander had a somewhat
less force on his side of the Tennessee River. Only a few defenses had
been thrown up, and the men were scattered over the ground, when at
daylight on Sunday morning, April 6th, the Confederates furiously
assailed the outlying divisions of the Union army and drove them back
upon the main body. They steadily gained ground, and it looked as if
nothing could save the Union army from overwhelming disaster.

When the attack was made Grant was on the opposite side of the river in
consultation with Buell. Hurrying to the scene of the furious conflict,
it looked as if his army was on the edge of inevitable destruction, but
he handled his demoralized forces with such masterly skill that the
panic was checked, and on the river bank, over which they had been
well-nigh driven, an effective stand was made and the Confederates were
checked, the gunboats giving invaluable assistance in saving the army
from defeat. The night closed with all the advantage on the side of the
Confederates.

The darkness, however, was of immeasurable value to the Federals.
Buell's army was brought across the river and other reinforcements
arrived, so that in the morning Grant found himself in command of fully
50,000 well-equipped troops. The greatest advantage gained by the
Federals, however, came during the previous day's fighting, when
everything was going the way of their enemies. General Albert Sidney
Johnston, while directing operations, was struck by a shot which
shattered his knee and mortally wounded him. He spoke only a few words
as he was lifted from his horse, and the command devolved upon
Beauregard, much his inferior in ability. He was unable to restrain the
troops from plundering the captured Union camps; and when on the second
day Grant launched his regiments against them, they were driven
pell-mell from the field, and did not stop their retreat until they
reached Corinth, Mississippi.

[Illustration: A RAILROAD BATTERY.]

Little fear of the Union troops being caught a second time at such a
disadvantage.



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