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Everything seemed to be in
his favor, and the campaign opened promisingly.


THE NEW CAMPAIGN AGAINST RICHMOND.

Hooker's plan was to assail Lee at two points. The Rappahannock and
Rapidan were to be crossed a short distance west of Fredericksburg, and
the left wing attacked. While this was going on, Hooker's own left wing
was to occupy the heights and secure possession of the Richmond
Railroad. The powerful Union cavalry were to ride around Lee's position
and cut off his retreat to Richmond. This involved the destruction of
the railroads and bridges over the North and South Anna Rivers.

This important movement was begun April 27th. The main portion of the
corps of Meade, Howard, and Slocum, numbering 36,000 men, marched thirty
miles up the Rappahannock and crossed the stream without resistance. A
force then moved ten miles down the other side of the river, driving
away several Confederate detachments, and opened the way for Couch with
12,000 men to cross and join the other three corps. Taking different
routes, the 48,000 advanced toward Chancellorsville, which had been
named as the rendezvous. They were soon followed by Sickles with 18,000
men.

It was not until the Union movement had progressed thus far that Lee
read its purpose. He hastily called in his divisions, and, on the
forenoon of May 1st, the Army of Northern Virginia was drawn up in
battle-line in front of that dense-wooded district known as the
Wilderness.

Exultingly confident, Hooker ordered an advance that day from near
Chancellorsville toward Fredericksburg. Hardly had he started when he
learned that Lee was moving against him; he, therefore, paused and threw
up defenses. His aim was to flank Lee, and, to prevent it, the
Confederate commander took desperate chances. Keeping up a rattling
demonstration in front he sent Stonewall Jackson with 30,000 men around
the right of the Union army. Had Hooker known of this daring movement,
he could easily have crushed each division in detail.


STONEWALL JACKSON'S FLANK MOVEMENT.

Jackson carried out his programme with fearful completeness. Without his
purpose being suspected, he traveled fifteen miles, reaching the road
leading from Orange to Fredericksburg, on the southern side of the
Rapidan. He was thus within two miles of General Howard's Eleventh
Corps. The men were preparing supper with no thought of danger, when the
air was suddenly split by thousands of "rebel yells," and the graybacks
rushed out of the woods and swept everything before them. The whole
Eleventh Corps broke into a wild panic, and ran for their lives toward
Chancellorsville.

The German division especially, under the command of Carl Schurz, were
irrestrainable in their terror.

The majority, however, stood their ground bravely, and their commanders
put forth every effort to stop the wild stampede. A partial success was
attained, and the artillery poured in a fire which checked the pursuit.
Fortunately night was at hand, and the fighting soon ceased. The
position of the Union army was critical in the extreme. It was squeezed
in between Chancellorsville and the fork of the two rivers. What fate
awaited it on the morrow?

[Illustration: THOMAS J. ("STONEWALL") JACKSON.]

At this juncture, the Confederate cause received the severest blow in
its history. That remarkable man, Stonewall Jackson, was confident that
the destruction of the Union army was at hand, and he was impatient for
the morrow that he might complete the fearful work. In the dusk of early
evening he rode forward, accompanied by several of his staff, to
reconnoitre the Union position. Passing beyond the outer line of
skirmishers, the party halted in the gloom and peered toward the Federal
lines. Dimly discerned by a South Carolina regiment, they were mistaken
for the enemy, and a volley was fired at them. One of the staff was
killed and two wounded. Comprehending the blunder, Jackson wheeled and
galloped into the woods, but before the shelter could be reached, the
South Carolinians fired a second time.

Jackson was struck twice in the left arm and once in the right hand. His
frightened horse whirled about and plunged away. A limb knocked off his
hat and came near unseating him, but he managed to keep in the saddle
and guide his steed into the road, where one of his staff helped him to
the ground and supported him to the foot of a tree where he was laid
down. He was suffering so keenly that he could not walk, and was carried
on a litter to the rear. For a part of the way, all were exposed to such
a hot artillery fire that they had to pause several times and lie down.

[Illustration: HOUSE IN WHICH STONEWALL JACKSON DIED.]

The wound grew so bad that the arm was amputated, but pneumonia
followed, and Jackson died on Sunday, May 10th. His last words, uttered
in his delirium, were: "Let us cross over the river and rest under the
shadow of the trees."


BATTLE OF CHANCELLORSVILLE.

The fighting at Chancellorsville was renewed at daylight, May 3d.
General Stuart succeeded to the command of Jackson's corps. The
superior numbers of the Union army and its compact formation gave it
all the advantage. It needed but one thing to insure overwhelming
success: that was competent leadership, and that was the one thing which
it did not have.

[Illustration: THE FATAL WOUNDING OF "STONEWALL" JACKSON

After his first great victory at Chancellorsville, "Stonewall" Jackson
believed that the destruction of the Union army was at hand, and in his
impatience for the morrow, that he might complete the work, he rode in
the dusk of the evening beyond his outposts to reconnoiter. A South
Carolina regiment mistook his party for the enemy and fired upon them,
mortally wounding their great commander.]

With the weaker army still separated, it forced the Federals back toward
the river, where Hooker was compelled to form a second line. Holding him
there, Lee turned toward Sedgwick, who was at Fredericksburg with 25,000
men. He had a good opportunity to assail Lee in the rear, but failed to
do so, and gave his efforts to capturing Marye's Heights, which was
defended by a weak garrison. It was easily taken, and Sedgwick sent a
column in the direction of Chancellorsville. On the road it encountered
some breastworks, thrown up by the force which Lee had dispatched to
check Sedgwick's advance. He was driven back, and the rebels, having
been reinforced, recaptured Marye's Heights. Sedgwick made a hurried
retreat, and thenceforward formed no factor in the battle.

Having disposed of him, Lee turned again upon Hooker. Early on the 5th,
he placed a number of his guns within range of United States Ford and
dropped a few shells among the wagon trains. Nothing, however, was
accomplished on this day, except that the dry and parched woods were set
on fire, and many of the wounded who were unable to help themselves were
burned to death. Every horror that can be conceived as to war was added
to the awful scene.


RETREAT OF THE UNION ARMY.

A heavy rainstorm caused the Rapidan and Rappahannock to rise so rapidly
that Hooker decided, after consulting his officers, to get back while he
had the chance to do so. The bridges were covered with pine boughs, and,
with the noise of the wheels deadened by the crashing thunder, the
wagons and artillery made the passage without discovery. By the
following morning, the entire Army of the Potomac was once more across
the Rappahannock and marching back to its old camp at Falmouth, and once
more the advance against Richmond had ended in woeful disaster.

The losses of the Unionists at Chancellorsville were: killed, 1,606;
wounded, 9,762; missing, 5,919; total, 17,287. The losses of the
Confederates were: killed, 1,665; wounded, 9,081; captured and missing,
2,018; total, 12,764.


THE SECOND CONFEDERATE INVASION.

After such a frightful Union defeat, it was no wonder that the
Confederates again decided to invade the North. Lee was not favorable to
the plan, but he must have felt that the prospect of success was better
than ever before. He made his preparations with great care, and
strengthened his army to 75,000 men, divided into three corps, commanded
respectively by Longstreet, Ewell, and A.P. Hill. He had in addition
15,000 cavalry under General J.E.B. ("Jeb") Stuart.

The northward march was begun the first week in June. Longstreet and
Ewell advanced upon Culpeper, while Hill remained near Fredericksburg,
aiming to deceive Hooker as to his intentions. Hooker quickly perceived
that most of the rebel army had disappeared from his front, but it was a
mystery to him where it had gone. A reconnoissance developed the
direction taken by the two missing corps. Unsuspicious of the grand
project that was in the mind of the Confederate commander, Hooker moved
down the Shenandoah Valley, taking the same course as Lee, but with the
Blue Ridge Mountains between them.


LEE'S PRELIMINARY MOVEMENTS.

Passing through the defiles in this range, Lee dropped down on Milroy at
Winchester before he dreamed of danger. Most of his 7,000 men were
captured, but Milroy and a few escaped by a hurried flight at night. All
doubt now had vanished as to the intentions of Lee; he was aiming for
Pennsylvania, at the head of a powerful, well-organized army; Washington
and probably Philadelphia were in peril. The only check that could block
its way was the Army of the Potomac, and Hooker lost no time in moving.
He reached Fairfax Court-House on the night of the 14th, thus placing
himself on the flank of Ewell. The Confederates, however, held the
mountain passes securely and nothing effective could be done.

[Illustration: ROBERT E. LEE.

Confederate Commander-in-chief at Gettysburg.

(1807-1870).]

On the 22d the headquarters of Lee were at Beverly, ten miles from
Winchester, with which Lee kept up communication through A.P. Hill's
corps, which was between Culpeper and Front Royal. Ewell, without
hesitation, forded the Potomac into Maryland, while his cavalry pushed
on into Pennsylvania.

By this time the government was so alarmed that President Lincoln, on
the 15th of June, called by proclamation on the governors of Ohio,
Pennsylvania, Maryland, and West Virginia to furnish 100,000 militia
for the protection of those States.



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