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The evacuation occurred on
the night of September 6th. As soon as the Federals took possession,
they had to make all haste to repair the ramparts to protect themselves
against the fire from Fort Moultrie and James Island, whose guns were
immediately turned upon them.

By this time, Fort Sumter was in ruins, its artillery could not be
served, and its garrison comprised only a detachment of infantry. Upon
being summoned to surrender by Dahlgren, the commander invited the
admiral to come and take the fort. The effort to do so was made by a
military force and the ironclads on the 9th of September, but failed. No
more important attempts followed. The result had shown that the defenses
of Charleston were practically impregnable, and, though shells were
occasionally sent into the forts and city, the latter was not captured
until near the end of the war, and then it was brought about, as may be
said, by the collapse of the Confederacy itself.

When the war began the Southerners were the superiors of the Northerners
as regarded their cavalry. Horseback riding is more common in the South
than in the North, but it did not take the Union volunteers long to
acquire the art, and, as the war progressed, the cavalry arm was greatly
increased and strengthened. One of the natural results of this was
numerous raids by both sides, some of which assumed an importance that
produced a marked effect on the military campaigns in progress, while in
other cases, the daring excursions were simply an outlet to the
adventurous spirit which is natural to Americans and which manifests
itself upon every opportunity and occasion.


Mention has been made of the embarrassment caused General Lee during his
Gettysburg campaign by the absence of Stuart with his calvary on one of
his raids. In the autumn, Stuart started out on a reconnaissance to
Catlett's Station, where he observed French's column in the act of
withdrawing from the river, whereupon he turned back toward Warrenton.
Taking the road leading from that town to Manassas, he found himself
unexpectedly confronting the corps of General Warren. Thus he was caught
directly between two fires and in imminent danger of defeat and capture,
for his force was but a handful compared with either column of the
Federals. Fortunately for the raider, he and his men were in a strip of
woods, and had not been seen, but discovery seemed certain, for their
enemies were on every hand, and the slightest inadvertence, even such as
the neighing of a horse, was likely to betray them.

Stuart called his officers around him to discuss what they could do to
extricate themselves from their dangerous situation. No one proposed to
surrender, and it looked as if they would be obliged to abandon their
nine pieces of horse artillery and wait until night, when they might cut
their way out.


Stuart did not like the idea of losing his guns. At any rate, he would
not consent, until another plan which had occurred to him was tried.
Several of his men were dismounted, and each was furnished with a musket
and infantry knapsack. The uniform was not likely to attract notice in
the darkness, in case they met any Federals. These messengers were
ordered to pick their way through the Union lines to Warrenton, where
they would find General Lee, who was to be told of the danger in which
Stuart was placed. The Confederate commander could be counted upon to
send prompt help. Fortunately for Stuart, two of his men succeeded in
getting through the Union lines and reaching Lee.

At the best, however, the night must pass before help could arrive, and
it need not be said that the hours were long and anxious ones to the
troopers hiding in the woods, with the Federal camp-fires burning on
every side, and the men moving about and likely to come among them at
any moment. They were so close, indeed, that their laughter and
conversation were plainly heard.

The alert horsemen suddenly observed two Union officers coming toward
them. Their careless manner showed they had no thought of danger, and
they were strolling along, when several dark figures sprang up from the
ground, shoved their pistols in their faces, and warned them if they
made the least outcry they would be instantly shot. The prisoners saw
the shadowy forms all around them, and were sensible enough to submit
and give no trouble. The night gradually wore away, and just as it was
growing light, and while the Union division on the heights of Cedar Run,
where they were posted to protect the rear of General Warren, were
preparing breakfast, they were alarmed by the firing of musketry from
the advance of a Confederate column coming up the Warrenton road.

"That means that Uncle Bob has sent us help!" was the gratified
exclamation of Stuart to his delighted friends; "we must take a hand in
this business."

The cavalry opened fire on the Union lines, which were thrown into some
confusion, during which Stuart limbered up his guns and quickly rejoined


As has been stated, General Hooker at the opening of the battle of
Chancellorsville was confident that he was going to defeat Lee. In order
to cut off his retreat, he sent General Stoneman, with 2,300 cavalry, on
April 28th, to the rear of the Confederate army. Stoneman crossed the
Rappahannock at Kelly's Ford, where his force was divided. One-half, led
by General Averill, headed for the Orange Railroad, a little way above
Culpeper, then occupied by Fitzhugh Lee, with a force of 500 men. He was
attacked with such vigor that he hurriedly retreated across the Rapidan,
burning the bridges behind him. Averill, instead of pursuing, turned
about and made his way back to Hooker, in time to accompany him in his
retreat to the northern bank of the Rappahannock.

Meanwhile, Stoneman crossed the Rapidan on the 1st of May, and galloped
to Louisa Station, on the Virginia Central Railroad, a dozen miles to
the east of Gordonsville. There he paused and sent out several
detachments, which wrought a great deal of mischief. One of them
advanced to Ashland, only fifteen miles from Richmond, while another
went still closer to the Confederate capital. These bodies of troopers
caused much alarm, and a general converging of the enemy's cavalry
caused Stoneman to start on his return, May 6th. For a time he was in
great danger, but his men were excellently mounted, and, by hard riding,
they effected a safe escape along the north bank of the Pamunkey and
York Rivers, and rejoined their friends at Gloucester.


During the siege of Vicksburg a daring raid was made in the rear of the
city by Colonel B.H. Grierson. In this instance his work was of great
help to General Grant, for he destroyed the Confederate lines of
communication, and checked the gathering of reinforcements for
Pemberton. Grierson, who conceived the plan of the raid, left La Grange
on the 17th of April with three regiments of cavalry. After crossing the
Tallahatchie, he rode south to the Macon and Corinth Railroad, where the
rails were torn up, telegraph lines cut, and bridges and other property
destroyed. To do the work thoroughly detachments were sent in different
directions, and they spared nothing.

Grierson now changed his course to the southwest, seized the bridge over
Pearl River, burned a large number of locomotives, and forced his way
through a wild country to Baton Rouge, which he found in the possession
of Unionists. He had been engaged for a fortnight on his raid, during
which he destroyed an immense amount of property, captured several
towns, fought several sharp skirmishes, and carried off many prisoners.

John S. Mosby was the most daring Confederate raider in the East. Some
of his exploits and escapes were remarkable, and an account of them
would fill a volume with thrilling incidents. General Lee did not look
with favor on such irregular work, but accepted it as one of the
accompaniments of war, and it cannot be denied that Mosby gave him
valuable help in more than one instance.


John H. Morgan was famous in the southwest as a raider and guerrilla. At
the beginning of July, 1863, he seized Columbia, near Jamestown,
Kentucky, and advanced against Colonel Moore at Greenbrier Bridge. His
reception was so hot that he was obliged to retreat, whereupon he
attacked Lebanon, where there was considerable vicious fighting in the
streets. One of Morgan's regiments was commanded by his brother, who was
killed. The incensed leader set fire to the houses, and, although the
defenders surrendered, the place was sacked. Then the invaders retreated
before the Union cavalry who were advancing against them. Their course
was through Northern Kentucky, where they plundered right and left, and
spread dismay on every hand.

Reckless and encouraged by their successes, they now swam their horses
over the Ohio River, and, entering Indiana, gave that State its first
experience in war. The local militia were called out, but the
experienced cavalry easily brushed them aside. They knew, however, it
would be different when they met the regular Union cavalry who were
riding hard after them. To escape them, Morgan started for western
Virginia. When he entered Ohio, the State was terrified, and even
Cincinnati trembled, but the raiders had no thought of stopping until
they readied western Virginia, where they would be safe.

The telegraph had carried the news of Morgan's movements everywhere, and
the determination was general that he should not be allowed to escape
from the entanglements in which he and his men had involved themselves.
The militia guarded all the fords of the Ohio; gunboats steamed back and
forth; the roads were blocked by felled trees, and everything possible
was done to obstruct the band, who were so laden with plunder that their
exhausted animals had to proceed slowly.

It is stated by credible witnesses, who saw the formidable company
riding along the highway when hard pressed, that nearly every man in the
saddle was sound asleep.

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