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They dared not make any extended halt through
fear of their pursuers, and when they did pause it was because of their
drooping animals.

Reaching the Ohio at last, Morgan planted his field guns near Buffington
Island, with the view of protecting his men while they swam the river.
Before he could bring them into use, a gunboat knocked the pieces right
and left like so many tenpins. Abandoning the place, Morgan made the
attempt to cross at Belleville, but was again frustrated. It was now
evident that the time had come when each must lookout for himself.
Accordingly, the band broke up and scattered. Their pursuers picked them
up one by one, and Morgan himself and a few of his men were surrounded
near New Lisbon, Ohio, and compelled to surrender. He and his principal
officers were sentenced to the Ohio penitentiary, where they were kept
in close confinement until November 27th, when through the assistance of
friends (some of whom were probably within the prison), he and six
officers effected their escape, and succeeded in reaching the
Confederate lines, where they were soon at their characteristic work
again.

Morgan was a raider by nature, but, as is often the case, the "pitcher
went to the fountain once too often." While engaged upon one of his
raids the following year he was cornered by the Federal cavalry, and in
the fight that followed was shot dead.

Far below these men in moral character were such guerrillas as
Quantrell, who were simply plunderers, assassins, and murderers, who
carried on their execrable work through innate depravity, rather than
from any wish to help the side with which they identified themselves.
Most of them soon ran their brief course, and died, as they had lived,
by violence.




CHAPTER XVIII.

ADMINISTRATION OF LINCOLN (CONCLUDED), 1861-1865.

WAR FOR THE UNION (CONCLUDED), 1864-1865.

The Work Remaining to be Done--General Grant Placed in Command of all
the Union Armies--The Grand Campaign--Banks' Disastrous Red River
Expedition--How the Union Fleet was Saved--Capture of Mobile by Admiral
Farragut--The Confederate Cruisers--Destruction of the _Alabama_ by the
_Kearsarge_--Fate of the Other Confederate Cruisers--Destruction of the
_Albemarle_ by Lieutenant William B. Cushing--Re-election of President
Lincoln--Distress in the South and Prosperity in the North--The Union
Prisoners in the South--Admission of Nevada--The Confederate Raids from
Canada--Sherman's Advance to Atlanta--Fall of Atlanta--Hood's Vain
Attempt to Relieve Georgia--Superb Success of General Thomas--"Marching
Through Georgia"--Sherman's Christmas Gift to President Lincoln--Opening
of Grant's Final Campaign--Battles in the Wilderness--Wounding of
General Longstreet and Deaths of General Stuart and Sedgwick--Grant's
Flanking Movements Against Lee--A Disastrous Repulse at Cold
Harbor--Defeat of Sigel and Hunter in the Shenandoah Valley
--"Bottling-up" of Butler--Explosions of the Petersburg Mine--Early's
Raids--His Final Defeat by Sheridan--Grant's Campaign--Surrender of
Lee--Assassination of President Lincoln--Death of Booth and Punishment
of the Conspirators--Surrender of Jo Johnston and Collapse of the
Southern Confederacy--Capture of Jefferson Davis--His Release and
Death--Statistics of the Civil War--A Characteristic Anecdote.


THE WORK TO BE DONE.

Two grand campaigns remained to be prosecuted to a successful conclusion
before the great Civil War could be ended and the Union restored. The
first and most important was that of General Grant against Richmond, or,
more properly, against Lee, who was still at the head of the unconquered
Army of Northern Virginia, and who must be overcome before the
Confederate capital could fall. The second was the campaign of General
Sherman, through the heart of the Southern Confederacy. Other
interesting and decisive operations were to be pressed, but all were
contributory to the two great ones mentioned.

Several momentous truths had forced themselves upon the national
government. It had learned to comprehend the magnitude of the struggle
before it. Had the North and South possessed equal resources and the
same number of troops, the latter could not have been conquered any more
than the North could have been defeated had the situation been reversed.
But the North possessed men, wealth, and resources immensely beyond
those of the South. The war had made the South an armed camp, with
privation and suffering everywhere, while in the North a person might
have traveled for days and weeks without suspecting that a domestic war
was in progress. It was necessary to overwhelm the South, and the North
had not only the ability to do so, but was resolved that it should be
done. Its estimates were made on the basis of an army of a million men.
Large bounties were offered for soldiers, and, when these did not
provide all that was needed, drafting was resorted to. There had been
rioting and disorder in New York City and other places during the summer
of 1863, when there was a vicious revolt against drafting, but the
government persisted and obtained the men it needed.


THE RIGHT LEADER.

Another proven fact was that the war could not be successfully
prosecuted by a bureau in Washington. This attempt at the beginning had
brought disaster; but the excuse for this interference was that the
right leaders had not yet appeared. General after general was tried at
the head of the armies, and had either failed or come short of the
expected success. The events of 1863, however, indicated unerringly the
right men to whom the destinies of the nation could be safely intrusted.
Foremost among these was General Ulysses S. Grant. With that genius of
common sense, which always actuated President Lincoln, he nominated him
to the rank of lieutenant-general, the grade of which was revived by
Congress in February, 1864, and the Senate confirmed the appointment on
the 2d of March. In obedience to a summons from Washington, Grant left
Nashville on the 4th of the month, arrived on the 9th, and President
Lincoln handed him his commission on the following day.

"I don't know what your plans are, general," said the President, "nor do
I ask to know them. You have demonstrated your ability to end this war,
and the country expects you to do it. Go ahead, and you may count upon
my unfaltering support."

Grant modestly accepted the tremendous responsibility, which placed him
in command of all the armies of the United States, and he established
his headquarters with the Army of the Potomac at Culpeper, Va., March
26, 1864.


THE GRAND CAMPAIGN.

The plan of campaign determined upon by Grant was to concentrate all the
national forces into a few distinct armies, which should advance on the
same day against the opposing Confederate armies, and, by fighting
incessantly, prevent any one of them from reinforcing the other. The
armies of the enemy were themselves to be the objective points, and they
were to be given no time for rest. Sherman was to advance from Atlanta
against Johnston, who had an army larger in numbers than that of Lee;
Banks' army, as soon as it could be withdrawn from the disastrous Red
River expedition, was to act against Mobile; Sigel was to pass down the
valley of Virginia and prevent the enemy from making annoying raids from
that quarter; Butler was to ascend the James and threaten Richmond; and,
finally, the Army of the Potomac, under the immediate command of Meade,
was to protect Washington, and essay the most herculean task of all--the
conquest of Lee and his army.

Orders were issued by Grant for a general movement of all the national
forces on the 4th of May. Since they were so numerous, and began nearly
at the same time, it is necessary to give the particulars of each in
turn, reserving that of the most important--Grant's own--for the last.


BANKS' RED RIVER EXPEDITION.

One of the most discreditable affairs of the war was what is known as
Banks' Red River Expedition. That officer was in command at New Orleans,
when it was decided to send a strong force up the Red River, in quest of
the immense quantities of cotton stored in that region, though the
ostensible object was the capture of Shreveport, Louisiana, 350 miles
above New Orleans, and the capital of the State.

The plan was for the army to advance in three columns, supported by
Admiral Porter with a fleet, which was to force a passage up the Red
River. General A.J. Smith was to march from Vicksburg, with the first
division of the army, which numbered 10,000 men; Banks was to lead the
second from New Orleans, and Steele the third from Little Rock.

General Edmund Kirby Smith was the Confederate commander of the
Trans-Mississippi Department. Although he had fewer men than the
invaders, he prepared for a vigorous resistance. He sent Generals Price
and Marmaduke to harass Steele, directed General Dick Taylor to obstruct
the Red River as much as he could, while he made ready to make the best
fight possible.

Fifty miles above the mouth of the Red River stood Fort de Russy, which,
although considerably strengthened, was carried by assault, March 13th.
On the 15th, Porter's twelve gunboats and thirty transports joined
Franklin at Alexandria. The Federal cavalry occupied Natchitoches, on
the last day of the month, and in the van of the army; they arrived at
Mansfield on the 8th of April, several days after Admiral Porter had
reached Grand Echore on the Red River.

Meanwhile, the Confederate General Dick Taylor kept fighting and falling
back before the Union advance, but he was continually reinforced, until
he felt strong enough to offer the Federals battle. This took place on
the 8th, a short distance from Mansfield. The assault was made with
vehemence, and the Union troops, who were straggling along for miles,
were taken by surprise and driven into headlong panic, leaving their
artillery behind, and not stopping their flight until under the
protection of the guns of the Nineteenth Corps. Then a stand was made,
and Banks fell back to his old camping ground at Pleasant Hill. His
intention was to remain there, but his command was so disorganized that
he continued his flight.



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