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The real dissatisfaction was
in the continual demand for more soldiers. In the course of the year
fully 1,200,000 men had been summoned to the ranks. Several drafts took
place, and bounties were paid, which in many instances were at the rate
of a thousand dollars to a man. A good many people began to declare this
demand exorbitant, and that, if the real necessity existed, the Union
was not worth such an appalling cost of human life.


WAR'S DESOLATION.

Behind all this seeming prosperity were thousands of mourning households
and desolate hearthstones in the North as well as the South. Fathers,
brothers, and sons had fallen, and would nevermore return to their loved
ones. The shadow was everywhere. Sorrow, broken-hearts, and lamentation
were in the land, for war, the greatest curse of mankind, spares neither
parent, child, nor babe. The exchange of prisoners, carried on almost
from the very opening of the war, ceased, because the Confederate
authorities refused to exchange negro soldiers. As a consequence,
multitudes of Union prisoners suffered indescribable misery in many of
the Southern prisons. This was especially the case in Andersonville,
Georgia, where a brute named Wirz, a Swiss, showed a fiendish delight in
adding to the tortures of those committed to his care. This miscreant
was afterward tried for his atrocities, found guilty, and hanged. He was
the only man executed for the part he took in the war. There was less
suffering in other places. The straits to which the Confederates
themselves were driven made it impossible in some instances to give the
care they would have given to their prisoners. In the early part of
1864, more than a hundred Unionists confined in Libby Prison, Richmond,
escaped by tunneling, but most of them were recaptured and returned to
confinement.

Nevada was admitted to the Union in 1864. It formed part of the Mexican
cession of 1848, prior to which time no settlement had been made in the
State. In that year the Mormons settled in Carson and Washoe Valleys. In
1859, silver was found to exist in vast quantities, and, in 1866, the
area of the State was increased by additions from Arizona and Utah.


CONFEDERATE RAIDERS FROM CANADA.

One of the most irritating annoyances resulted from the presence of
Confederates in Canada, who continually plotted mischief against the
North. In October, 1864, a band of them rode into St. Albans, Vermont,
which is only fifteen miles from the border, robbed the bank of a large
amount of money, burned a hotel, fired into a crowd of citizens,
committed other outrages, and galloped back to Canada, where thirteen
were arrested and thrown into prison. The legal proceedings which
followed resulted in the discharge of the prisoners on technical
grounds. General Dix, in command of the Eastern Department, issued
orders that in the future all such marauders were to be pursued and
shot down or arrested, no matter where they took refuge. Had these
measures been carried out, there would have been war with England, which
would never permit such invasion of her territory. General Dix's action
was disavowed by our government, while the Canadian authorities took
care to prevent any more similar outrages.

It has been stated that General Grant planned a forward movement of the
Union forces early in May of this year, with the purpose of keeping the
Confederate armies so incessantly engaged that they would have no
opportunity of reinforcing one another.

[Illustration: BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF THE NORTH END OF ANDERSONVILLE PRISON.

(_From a photograph._)

In the middle-ground midway of the swamp is the "Island" which was
covered with shelters after the higher ground had all been occupied.]


GENERAL SHERMAN'S ADVANCE TO ATLANTA.

General Sherman, the faithful lieutenant of Grant, was in command of the
three armies, respectively, of the Cumberland, of Tennessee, and of
Ohio, led by Generals Thomas, McPherson, and Schofield. General Jo
Johnston was Sherman's opponent, his commanders being Hardee, Hood, and
Polk. The troops were less numerous than the Federals, but they were the
finest of soldiers and were led by skillful officers.

Sherman made his preparations with care and thoroughness. Chattanooga
was his starting-point on his march through the South, and by the 1st of
May he had 254 guns, 100,000 men, and an immense amount of supplies at
that town. He began his famous march on the 7th of May. Johnston, who
saw his purpose, confronted him at Dalton, where an attack by Unionists
was repulsed; but Sherman resorted to flanking tactics, and Johnston
fell back, crossing the river, May 15th, and taking a new position at
Etowah, forty miles to the south of Resaca.

The great risk assumed by Sherman will be understood. It was necessary
to preserve his communications, for he had but a single railroad line
behind him. To do this, he had to leave strong detachments at different
points, thereby weakening his army as he advanced into Confederate
territory. Johnston, being among friends, was not obliged to do anything
of that nature. He could preserve his forces intact and add slightly to
them. By-and-by, the armies would be nearly equal in numbers, when
Johnston proposed to give battle to the invaders.

The Union army marched in three columns, their flanks guarded by
cavalry, and the columns always within supporting distance of one
another. The steady advance and retreat went on with occasional brisk
fighting. On the 14th of June, during an exchange of shots, the head of
General Leonidas Polk was carried away by a cannon ball. Now and then
Johnston attacked Sherman, but invariably without gaining any important
advantage.

At last Sherman grew tired of continually flanking his enemy, and made
the mistake of assaulting him. This was at Kenesaw Mountain on the 27th
of June. The attack was made with great gallantry, but the Unionists
were repulsed with the loss of 3,000 men.

Sherman returned to his flanking tactics, which were conducted with so
much skill that finally Johnston was forced into the defenses of
Atlanta. It was there he meant to make a stand and deliver battle on
something approaching equal terms. His generals were dissatisfied with
his continual falling back and protested. That Johnston was sagacious in
what he did cannot be questioned; but his old enemy, President Davis,
took advantage of the opportunity to remove him and place General Hood
in chief command.

Hood had not half the ability of Johnston, but he believed in fighting.
He assumed Johnston's place on the 17th of July. The news was pleasant
to Sherman, for he rated Hood at his true value as compared with
Johnston.

[Illustration: SHERMAN'S THREE SCOUTS

"Setting out at night they paddled continuously down the river until
daylight, when they ran the boat among the reeds and remained in hiding
until night came again."]

It had been a long and difficult march from Chattanooga to Atlanta, and
yet it may be said that Sherman had only reached his true
starting-point. He gave his soldiers a needed rest, and waited for
reinforcements. Those expected from Corinth, Mississippi, were routed by
General Forrest, but the needed men were obtained from other quarters,
and the three columns converged upon Atlanta, July 20th. The defenses
extended for three miles about the city, but were not quite completed.
McPherson secured possession of a hill that gave him a view of the city,
observing which Hood made a furious assault upon him on the night of the
22d. He came perilously near success, but, by hastening reinforcements
to the threatened point, Sherman was able to repel the attack. In the
fighting General McPherson, one of the best of the Union generals, was
killed.

[Illustration: DEATH OF GENERAL POLK.]

The plan of Sherman was to shut off Atlanta from the rest of the world.
By thus excluding its supplies, it would be starved into submission, as
was the case at Vicksburg. Accordingly, he began a series of works,
intended to be extended gradually around the city. This was difficult
and dangerous, as was proven when two columns of Union cavalry, failing
to effect a junction, through some misunderstanding, were separately
attacked and routed. Among the many prisoners taken was General
Stoneman, and the cavalry arm of the service was greatly weakened.

The impetuous Hood made a furious onslaught upon the Union army July
28th, renewing it several times, but was defeated with heavy loss in
each instance. Sherman, through the failure of one of his generals to
reach his assigned position in time, narrowly missed bagging Hood and
his whole army.


FALL OF ATLANTA.

But Sherman displayed masterly generalship by so manoeuvring as to
draw Hood away from the defenses and by thrusting his army between the
corps of Hardee and Atlanta. The only escape now for the Confederates
was to abandon the city, which was done on the 1st of September, many of
the citizens going with the retiring army. At nine o'clock the next
morning General Slocum, at the head of a strong reconnoitering column,
rode into Atlanta, and the mayor made a formal surrender of the place.

The news of the fall of Atlanta caused great rejoicing in the North, and
corresponding depression in the South. President Davis hurried to the
neighborhood to investigate for himself. He found matters so bad that
they could not be much worse. Hood, however, was as combative as ever,
and proposed to attack Sherman's lines of communication. It was a
dangerous proceeding, but Davis consented. On his way back to Richmond
he stopped at Macon and made a speech, in which he announced the plans
of Hood. This speech was published in the Southern papers, reached the
North, where it was republished, and in due time these papers went to
Sherman, It can well be understood that Davis' speech proved "mighty
interesting" reading to the Union commander.


FAILURE OF HOOD'S PLAN FOR THE RELIEF OF GEORGIA.

Hood's plan was simple. He proposed to march into Tennessee, and, by
threatening Sherman's communications, compel him to withdraw from
Georgia. But Sherman was not to be caught thus easily.



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