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He had been indicted for treason in 1866, being
released the following year, but his trial was dropped on the 6th of
February, 1869. He passed the remainder of his life in Memphis, and
later at Beauvoir, Mississippi, dying in New Orleans, December 6, 1889,
in the eighty-second year of his age.


STATISTICS OF THE WAR.

The most carefully prepared statistics of the Civil War give the
following facts: Number of men in the Union army furnished by each State
and Territory, from April 15, 1861, to close of war, 2,778,304, which,
reduced to a three years' standing, was 2,326,168. The number of
casualties in the volunteer and regular armies of the United States,
according to a statement prepared by the adjutant-general's office, was:
Killed in battle, 67,058; died of wounds, 43,012; died of disease,
199,720; other causes, such as accidents, murder, Confederate prisons,
etc., 40,154; total died, 349,944; total deserted, 199,105. Number of
soldiers in the Confederate service, who died of wounds or disease
(partial statement), 133,821. Deserted (partial statement), 104,428.
Number of United States troops captured during the war, 212,508;
Confederate troops captured, 476,169. Number of United States troops
paroled on the field, 16,431; Confederate troops paroled on the field,
248,599. Number of United States troops who died while prisoners,
30,156; Confederate troops who died while prisoners, 30,152. It is safe
to say that the number of men killed and disabled on both sides during
the War for the Union was fully one million. The public debt of the
United States, July 1, 1866, was $2,773,236,173.69, which on the 1st of
November, 1897, had been reduced to $1,808,777,643.40.

Mention has been made of the frightful brutalities of Captain Wirz, the
keeper of Andersonville prison. He richly merited the hanging which he
suffered on the 10th of November, 1865. As has been stated, he was the
only person executed for his part in the Civil War.

England, upon receiving news of the arrest of Jefferson Davis, declared
all ports, harbors, and waters belonging to Great Britain closed against
every vessel bearing the Confederate flag. The French government took
the same action a few days later.

More than a generation has passed since the close of the great Civil
War, which resulted in the cementing of the Union so firmly that the
bonds can never again be broken. Whatever resentment may have been felt
lasted but a brief while, and the late war with Spain removed the last
vestige.

[Illustration: HORACE GREELEY.

(1811-1872.)]

A little incident may serve as one of the thousand similar occurrences
which prove how perfectly the North and South fraternized long ago. The
officer who did the most effective work for the Union in the South
during the closing months of the war was General James H. Wilson, a
detachment of whose cavalry captured the fugitive Jefferson Davis. It
was General Wilson, who, on the 21st of April, 1865, rode into Macon,
Georgia, and took possession of the city. In the month of December,
1898, while on a visit to Macon, he made an address to the citizens,
from which the following extract is given:


THIRTY-THREE YEARS LATER.

FELLOW-CITIZENS: It is with infinite pleasure that I address myself in
words of peace to a Macon audience. [Cheers.] Thirty-odd years ago I
came into this town with 15,000 cavalry thundering at my heels.
[Laughter and shouts.] I was met with the roaring of cannon and the
firing of musketry. [Cheers.] I was greeted by the burning of warehouses
and the destruction of property, which I now profoundly regret.
[Cheers.] The welcome that was extended to me then was of the silent
quality. [Laughter.] An illustrious citizen, then your chief magistrate,
the Hon. Joseph E. Brown, after a four-hours' interview, speaking of me
then, said to another gathering of illustrious citizens, at the head of
which was Howell Cobb: "He is a clever young man, but, gentlemen, he
takes the military view of the situation." [Laughter.] That was a fact
then, but now I come among you and I receive a different welcome. I was
then a victor; to-day I am a captive. [Cheers.] I must say I am a
willing captive of your city. The fair women and the brave and excellent
gentlemen of your town have, by their open and generous hospitality,
imprisoned me deep down in their hearts, and I would be recreant to
every feeling of my own if I desired release from such pleasing bondage.

[Illustration: LINCOLN'S GRAVE, SPRINGFIELD, ILLINOIS.]




CHAPTER XIX.

ADMINISTRATIONS OF JOHNSON AND GRANT 1865-1877.

Andrew Johnson--Reconstruction--Quarrel Between the President and
Congress--The Fenians--Execution of Maximilian--Admission of
Nebraska--Laying of the Atlantic Cable--Purchase of Alaska--Impeachment
and Acquittal of the President--Carpet-bag Rule in the South--Presidential
Election of 1868--U.S. Grant--Settlement of the _Alabama_
Claims--Completion of the Overland Railway--The Chicago Fire--Settlement
of the Northwestern Boundary--Presidential Election of 1872--The Modoc
Troubles--Civil War in Louisiana--Admission of Colorado--Panic of
1873--Notable Deaths--Custer's Massacre--The Centennial--The Presidential
Election of 1876 the Most Perilous in the History of the Country.


THE SEVENTEENTH PRESIDENT.

As provided by the Constitution, Andrew Johnson, Vice-President, took
the oath of office as President on the day that Abraham Lincoln died. He
was born in Raleigh, North Carolina, December 29, 1808, and his parents
were so poor that they did not send him to school at all. When only ten
years old, he was apprenticed to a tailor, and anyone who at that time
had prophesied that he would some day become President of the United
States would have been set down as an idiot or a lunatic.

[Illustration: ANDREW JOHNSON.

(1808-1875.) One partial term, 1865-1869.]

Among the visitors to the tailor shop was a kind-hearted old gentleman
who was in the habit of reading to the boys and men. Andrew became
interested in what he heard, and, seeing how much better it would be for
him to be able to read for himself, set to work and learned. He removed
to Greenville, Tennessee, in 1826, and there married a noble woman, who
encouraged his ambition and helped him in his studies. Nature had given
him marked ability, and he became interested in local politics. The
citizens had confidence in him, for he was twice elected alderman, twice
mayor, was sent three times to the State Legislature, and in 1843 was
elected to Congress. He remained there for ten years, when he was chosen
governor of Tennessee, and, in 1857, became United States senator.

Johnson had always been a Democrat, and, when the political upheaval
came in 1860, he supported Breckinridge. While he favored slavery, he
was a Unionist in every fibre of his being, and declared that every man
who raised his hand against the flag should be hanged as a traitor.
Tennessee was torn by the savage quarrel, and for a time the
secessionists were rampant. When Johnson returned to his home in May,
1861, his train was stopped by a mob who were determined to lynch him,
but he met the angered men at the door with a loaded revolver and cowed
them.

It was such men as Johnson that President Lincoln appreciated and
determined to keep bound to him. He appointed him military governor of
Tennessee in 1862, and it need hardly be said that Johnson made things
lively for the secessionists, and did not forget to give attention to
those who had persecuted him. His personal courage and honesty won the
admiration of the North, and, as we have shown, led to his being placed
on the ticket with President Lincoln, when he was renominated in 1864.

The reader will not forget that the surrender of Johnson and the
capture, imprisonment, and release of Jefferson Davis occurred while
Johnson was President.


THE PROBLEM OF RECONSTRUCTION.

Reconstruction was the grave problem that confronted the country at the
close of the war. The question was as to the status of the States lately
in rebellion. It would not do to restore them to their full rights, with
the same old governments, for they might make better preparations and
secede again. Nothing was clearer than that slavery was the real cause
of the war, and the safety of the nation demanded that it should be
extirpated forever. The Emancipation Proclamation was a war measure and
simply freed the slaves, but did not prevent the re-establishment of
slavery. In December, 1865, therefore, the Thirteenth Amendment, having
been adopted by three-fourths of the States, was declared a part of the
Constitution. By it slavery was forever abolished, and one of the
gravest of all perils was removed.

President Johnson was a man of strong passions and prejudices. He had
been a "poor white" in the South, whose condition in some respect was
worse than that of slaves. He held a bitter personal hatred of the
aristocratic Southerners, who had brought on the war. His disposition at
first was to hang the leaders, but after awhile he swung almost as far
in the opposite direction. At the same time, he was not particularly
concerned for the welfare of the freed slaves, who were called
"freedmen."


THE PRESIDENT'S POLICY.

President Johnson termed his plan "my policy," and briefly it was: To
appoint provisional or temporary governors for each of the States lately
in rebellion. These governors called conventions of delegates, who were
elected by the former white voters of the respective States. When the
conventions met they declared all the ordinances of secession void,
pledged themselves never to pay any debt of the Southern Confederacy,
and ratified the Thirteenth Amendment, as proposed by Congress early in
1865, and which abolished slavery. Before the close of the year named,
each of the excluded States had been reorganized in accordance with this
plan. Virginia, Tennessee, and Arkansas took the step while Lincoln was
President.

The vexatious question was as to the treatment of the freedmen. The
South had no faith that they would work, except when compelled to do so
by slave-overseers.



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