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Greeley was so crushed by his
defeat that he lost his reason and died within a month after election.
His electors scattered their votes, so that Thomas A. Hendricks, the
regular Democratic candidate, received 42; B. Gratz Brown, 16; Charles
J. Jenkins, 2; and David Davis, 1.


THE INDIAN QUESTION.

The second term of Grant was more troublous than the first. The
difficulties with the Indians, dating from the first settlement in the
country, were still with us. At the suggestion of the President, a grand
council of delegates of the civilized tribes met in December, 1870, in
the Choctaw division of the Indian Territory. The subject brought before
them was the organization of a republican form of government, to be
under the general rule of the United States. A second convention was
held in the following July and a provisional government organized. A
proposal was adopted that the United States should set aside large
tracts of land for the exclusive occupancy and use of the Indians. These
areas were to be known as "reservations," and so long as the Indians
remained upon them they were to be protected from molestation.

This scheme seemed to promise a settlement of the vexed question, but it
failed to accomplish what was expected. In the first place, most of the
Indians were unfriendly to it. No matter how large a part of country you
may give to a red man as his own, he will not be satisfied without
permission to roam and hunt over _all_ of it.

A more potent cause of trouble was the origin of all the Indian
troubles, from the colonial times to the present: the dishonesty and
rascality of the white men brought officially in contact with the red
men. Not only did these miscreants pursue their evil ways among the
Indians themselves, but there was an "Indian ring" in Washington, whose
members spent vast sums of money to secure the legislation that enabled
them to cheat the savages out of millions of dollars. This wholesale
plundering of the different tribes caused Indian wars and massacres,
while the evil men at the seat of the government grew wealthy and lived
in luxury.


THE MODOC TROUBLES.

Trouble at once resulted from removing the Indians to reservations that
were inferior in every respect to their former homes. The Modocs, who
had only a few hundred warriors, were compelled by our government to
abandon their fertile lands south of Oregon and go to a section which
was little better than a desert. They rebelled, and, under the
leadership of Captain Jack and Scar-faced Charley, a number took refuge
among some lava beds on the upper edge of California. On the 11th of
April, 1873, a conference was held between the Indian leaders and six
members of the peace commission. While it was in progress, the savages
suddenly attacked the white men. General Edward S. Canby and Dr. Thomas
were instantly killed, and General Meachem, another member, was badly
wounded, but escaped with his life.

The war against the Modocs was pushed. After much difficulty and
fighting, they were driven to the wall and compelled to surrender.
Captain Jack and two of his brother chiefs were hanged in the following
October. The remaining members were removed to a reservation in Dakota,
where they have given no further trouble.


CIVIL WAR IN LOUISIANA.

In the early part of this year, civil war broke out in Louisiana because
of the quarrels over reconstruction measures. The difficulty first
appeared two years earlier, when opposing factions made attempts to
capture the Legislature by unseating members belonging to the opposing
party. Matters became so grave that in the following January Federal
troops had to be used to preserve the peace. In December, 1872, another
bitter quarrel arose over the election of the governor and members of
the Legislature. The returning board divided, one part declaring William
P. Kellogg elected, while the other gave the election to John McEnery,
the candidate of the white man's party. Most of the negro vote had been
cast for Kellogg.

As a consequence, two rival State governments were organized. McEnery
was enjoined by the United States district court from acting, because,
as was asserted, the returning board which declared him elected had done
so in defiance of its order.

In the face of this prohibition, McEnery was inaugurated. The question
was referred to the Federal government, which declared in favor of
Kellogg. Thereupon the McEnery government disbanded, but in the latter
part of 1874 McEnery again laid claim to election. D.P. Penn, his
lieutenant-governor, and his armed followers took possession of the
State House. A fight followed in which Kellogg was driven from the
building, twenty-six persons killed and a large number wounded. Kellogg
appealed to Washington for help. McEnery, who was absent during these
violent proceedings, now returned and took the place of Penn. President
Grant ordered his supporters to disperse and General Emory forced
McEnery to surrender. The peace was broken in January, 1875, over the
election of members to the Legislature, and the Federal troops were
again called to restore order. A congressional committee was sent South
to investigate, and finally the quarrel was ended and Kellogg was
recognized as the legal governor.


ADMISSION OF COLORADO.

Colorado became the thirty-eighth State in August, 1876. The name is
Spanish, and refers to that part of the Rocky Mountains noted for its
many colored peaks. Colorado has more than thirty peaks within its
borders whose height is quite or nearly three miles. The wild,
mountainous region was explored in 1858 at two points, one near Pike's
Peak and the other in the southwestern portion. Both exploring parties
discovered gold, which, while abundant, is hard to extract. The
Territory was organized in 1861, and the principal discoveries of the
enormous deposits of silver have been made since 1870. The date of
Colorado's admission has caused it often to be referred to as the
"Centennial State."


THE PANIC OF 1873.

We had learned the meaning of hard times in 1837 and again in 1857. Once
more, in 1873, the blight fell upon the country. There were various
causes, all of which, in one sense, were the war. Prices had become
inflated, money was plentiful, and cities, towns, and people had become
extravagant. A mania seemed to seize municipal corporations for
indulging in "improvements," which brought ruinous debts upon the
municipalities. Enormous sums of money were invested in the building of
new railroad lines where the country was not developed sufficiently to
repay the expenditures. The quantity of goods brought into this country
was much in excess of that exported, a fact which turned the balance of
trade, as it was termed, against us. This required the sending abroad of
a large amount of money.

As illustrative of the extravagance in railroad building, it may be said
that, in the single year 1871, 8,000 miles were put in operation.
Instead of using ready money with which to build these lines, bonds were
issued by the railroad companies, which expected to pay the debts out of
the future earnings of the roads. In the course of five years
$1,750,000,000 were invested in railroad projects. The same speculative
spirit pervaded mining and manufacturing companies, which also borrowed
money by issuing bonds. A great amount of these were sold abroad, after
which the home market was industriously worked through the newspapers,
which overflowed with glowing promises. Thousands of poor widows,
orphans, and the trustees of estates invested all their scanty savings
in these enterprises.

Then the failures began. The banking firm of Jay Cooke & Company,
Philadelphia, one of the greatest in the United States, suspended, and
the whole country was alarmed. Next came the panic, which reached its
height in a few months. This was followed by dull times, when factories
closed, and multitudes were thrown out of employment. Several years
passed before the country fully recovered from the panic of 1873.


NOTABLE DEATHS.

Many noted men died during those times. The bluff, aggressive, and
patriotic Edwin M. Stanton, Lincoln's war secretary, passed away in
December, 1869, shortly after his appointment to the bench of the
supreme court by President Grant. General R.E. Lee, who had become
president of the Washington and Lee University, died at his home in
Lexington, Virginia, in 1870. Among others of prominence who died in the
same year were General George H. Thomas and Admiral Farragut. In 1872,
William H. Seward, Horace Greeley, Professor Morse, and General George
H. Meade breathed their last, and in the year following Chief Justice
Chase and Charles Sumner died. Millard Fillmore and Andrew Johnson, as
has been stated, died respectively in 1874 and 1875.

[Illustration: MONUMENT TO GENERAL LEE AT RICHMOND, VIRGINIA.]

The Democrats now gained a majority in the House of Representatives for
the first time since 1860. Among the members elected from the South were
several distinguished military leaders of the Southern Confederacy,
besides Alexander H. Stephens, of Georgia, who had been its
vice-president.

It was about this time that gold was discovered among the Black Hills,
which by treaty belonged to the Sioux Indians, since the section was
within their reservation. White men were warned to keep away, and steps
were taken by the military authorities to prevent them entering upon the
forbidden ground. But no risk or danger is sufficient to quench men's
thirst for gold, and thousands of the most desperate characters hurried
to the Black Hills and began digging for the yellow deposit.


CUSTER'S MASSACRE.

The Sioux are fierce and warlike. They have given our government a great
deal of trouble, and, finding their reservation invaded by white men,
they retaliated by leaving it, burning houses, stealing horses, and
cattle, and killing settlers in Wyoming and Montana. Their outrages
became so serious that the government sent a strong military force
thither under Generals Terry and Crook, which drove a formidable body of
warriors under the well-known Sitting Bull and others toward the Big
Horn Mountains and River.

[Illustration: GENERAL GEORGE CROOK.]

Generals Reno and Custer rode forward with the Seventh Cavalry to
reconnoitre, and discovered the Indians encamped in a village nearly
three miles long on the left bank of the Little Big Horn River.



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