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He died at Fremont, Ohio, January 17, 1893.

President Hayes proved his desire to strengthen the fraternal feeling
between the North and South by appointing as a member of his cabinet
David McKey, his postmaster-general. Mr. McKey was from Tennessee, and
had served the Confederacy during the Civil War. Hayes' administration
on the whole was uneventful, though marked by a number of incidents
which deserve mention. It was in 1877 that the first telephone for
business purposes was put into use. It connected the residence of
Charles Williams, in Somerville, Massachusetts, with his business office
in Boston, three miles distant. Alexander Bell, of the latter city, was
the inventor of the instrument, which is now in general use throughout
the country, and serves to connect points more than a thousand miles
apart.


RAILWAY STRIKES.

In the summer of 1877 occurred one of the most violent outbreaks among
labor men that has ever been known in this country. There was unrest in
the mining districts over the question of wages, and the dissatisfaction
spread to the principal manufacturing points. When the Baltimore and
Ohio Railroad made a reduction of 10 per cent. in the pay of its
employees it was followed, July 14th, by a partial strike on their line.
The men had the sympathy of workmen throughout the country, and the
strike spread to the Pennsylvania, Erie, New York Central, and their
western connections, including the Missouri and Pacific, and a number of
less important lines west of the Mississippi.

The Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers is one of the most intelligent
and conservative labor organizations in the country. It has won the
respect of corporations as well as of the community-at-large by its
fairness and its refusal to engage in strikes, except as a last resort
against grievances. Its members are located in all parts of the country,
and include a good many thousands. In the strike named the Brotherhood
took the lead, and the firemen, brakemen, and other railroad employees
joined them. The result was the stoppage of the wheels of commerce and
the ruin of vast amounts of perishable freight, to say nothing of the
expensive delays of all kinds. The railroad companies called upon the
various State authorities for protection in operating their lines, but,
as is generally the case, the militia were either in sympathy with the
strikers or were afraid of them. As a final resort, an appeal was made
to the United States government, whose soldiers understand only one
duty, that of obeying orders.

The strikers stopped all trains in Baltimore and Martinsburg, West
Virginia, and defied the authorities. The militia were scattered, but a
few regulars were sufficient to raise the blockade. On the 20th of July,
in an attempt of the rioters to resist the clearing of the streets in
Baltimore, nine persons were killed and a score wounded. The strike
extended until it included the whole country, with the exception of the
cotton-growing States.

The most dangerous outbreak was in Pittsburg, where an immense mob held
control of the city for two days. Disorder and violence reigned, and the
authorities were powerless. When on the 21st soldiers appeared on the
streets they were assailed with stones and pistol-shots, and they
replied with several volleys which killed and wounded a number of
rioters. This only added fuel to the flames, and the mob became more
savage than ever. The soldiers were attacked so furiously that they ran
into a roundhouse of the railway company for protection. There they were
besieged, and oil cars were rolled against the building and fired with
the purpose of burning the soldiers to death. The firemen were not
allowed to put out the flames, and it was several days before the
defenders were rescued.

The infuriated mob applied the torch to the buildings of the railroad
company, gutted cars, scattered or carried off the contents, burst open
and drank barrels of whiskey, and raged like so many wild beasts. Before
the terrific outbreak subsided, the Union Depot and all the machine
shops and railway buildings in the city were burned. Among the losses
were 126 locomotives and 2,500 cars laden with valuable freight. The
regular troops finally subdued the rioters, but not until a hundred
people had been killed and property destroyed to the value of five
million dollars.

There was rioting accompanied with violence in Chicago, Buffalo,
Columbus, Ohio, and at many other points. In Chicago, on the 26th of
July, nineteen persons were killed. St. Louis was disturbed, but there
was no special outbreak. In San Francisco a savage attack was made on
the Chinese and the managers of the lumber yards. At one period, on
6,000 miles of railroad not a wheel was turned, and 100,000 laborers
were idle or assisting in the rioting. Such violent ebullitions soon
expend themselves. By-and-by the men began returning to their work, and
within two or three weeks all the railroads were operating as usual.

About this time the elevated railway system was adopted in New York
City. It has proved so convenient that many lines have been added in the
metropolis, and the same means of travel is used in other cities, though
of late years electric trolley cars have been widely introduced.


THE NEZ PERCE WAR.

When Lewis and Clark journeyed across the upper part of our country, at
the beginning of the century, they made a treaty with the Nez Perce
Indians, whose home was in the northwest. They were visited afterward by
missionaries, and no trouble occurred with them until after our war with
Mexico. A large section of their land was bought by the United States
government in 1854, and a reservation was set apart for them in
northwestern Idaho and northeastern Oregon. As in the case of the
Seminoles of Florida however, many of the chiefs were opposed to the
sale of their lands, and, when the date came for their departure,
refused to leave.

Chief Joseph of the Nez Perces was one of the most remarkable Indians of
the century. He was shrewd, sagacious, brave, and remarkably
intelligent. General Wesley Merritt, of the United States army, has
pronounced his military genius of the highest order, and, in the
incidents we are about to narrate, his exploit in its way has never been
surpassed. A good many people will recall seeing Joseph at the
ceremonies at the tomb of General Grant in 1897, where his fine military
appearance attracted much attention.

In 1877, General Howard, commanding the department of the Columbia,
marched against the troublesome Nez Perces with a small force of
regulars. Being too weak to fight the soldiers, Chief Joseph, at the
head of his band, repeatedly eluded them with masterly skill. This
strange chase continued for hundreds of miles, Joseph keeping his women,
children, and impedimenta not only intact, but beyond reach of the
pursuers, who were filled with admiration of his genius. In the autumn
of 1877, the Nez Perces passed through the mountains of northern
Montana, where they were confronted by Colonel Miles and the regulars.
Even then Joseph could not be brought to battle, and crossed the
Missouri near the mouth of the Mussel Shell. In the Bear Paw Mountains,
however, his camp was surrounded and he was brought to bay. The Nez
Perces fought with great bravery, but were defeated. Joseph faced the
inevitable, and, walking forward to where General Howard was sitting on
his horse, handed him his rifle. Then, pointing to the sun in the sky,
he said: "From where the sun is in yonder heavens, I fight the white man
no more."

General Howard admired the valiant and chivalrous warrior, who had
conducted his campaign not only with rare skill, but without any of the
outrages and cruelties which seem natural to the American race. He took
his hand, and promised to be his friend. General Howard was able to keep
his promise, and secured such a favorable location for Joseph and his
band that they have been peaceable and satisfied ever since.


REMONETIZATION OF SILVER.

The money or currency question has long been a disturbing factor in
politics. During the war the silver currency had been out of
circulation, its place being taken for awhile by postage stamps and
afterward by "shinplasters," which were paper fractional parts of a
dollar. In 1873, Congress made gold the exclusive money standard. Silver
depreciated some ten per cent., and the "hard money" people opposed the
measures that were set on foot to remonetize silver; that is, to bring
it into circulation again. Such a bill was passed, then vetoed by the
President, promptly repassed over his veto, and it was ordered that the
coinage of silver should proceed at a rate not to exceed $2,000,000 a
month. About this time (December 18, 1878), gold and paper money for the
first time in seventeen years was of equal value.

In accordance with the law of 1875, specie payments by the United States
government was effected January 1, 1879. At that time there was an
accumulation of $138,000,000 in the United States treasury, nearly all
of it gold, representing forty per cent. of the outstanding bonds. The
mere knowledge of this fact so strengthened the public credit that,
instead of the anticipated rush on the 1st of January, only $11,000,000
was offered for redemption. The problem of specie payment proved to be a
bugbear.

[Illustration: GRANT AT WINDSOR CASTLE.]


THE FISHERY AWARD.

By the treaty of Washington, signed in 1872, Americans were allowed to
take fish of every kind, except shellfish, on the seacoasts and shores
and in the bays, harbors, and creeks of the provinces of Quebec, Nova
Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward's Island, and the adjacent islands,
without restriction as to the distance from shore. In return for this
privilege, our government agreed to charge a duty upon certain kinds of
fish brought by British subjects into American harbors. There were other
mutual concessions, and, in order to balance matters and make everything
smooth, the whole question was placed in the hands of an arbitration
commission, which began its sessions in the summer of 1877, at Halifax.
The commission included a member appointed by the Queen, one by the
President, and the third by the Austrian ambassador at the Court of St.
James.



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